Identify the Symbols:

Population Mean

Bonus: Sample Mean = M or X-bar

Identify the Symbols:

- Population: σ
- Sample: S or SD

Standard Deviation

Identify the Symbols:

- Population: σ
^{2} - Sample: S
^{2}or V

Variance.

The relationship between sample statistics and a population parameter can be described in terms of a _______________________, which is a fequency distribution of the means or other sample values of a very large number of equal-sized samples that have been randomly selected from the same population.

Sampling distribution.

The ______________________________ is normally shaped, and its mean is equal to the population mean.

Sampling Distribution of the Means.

Typically, the sampling distribution is defined by probability theory, is called a ________________________, and is based on the assumption that an infinite number of equal-sized samples have been randomly drawn from the same population.

Theoretical Sampling Distribution.

The ____________________________ makes the following predictions:

- Regardless of the shape of the distribution of individual scores in the population, as the sample size increases, the distribution of the mean approaches a normal distribution.
- The mean of the sampling distribution of the mean is equal to the population mean.
- The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the mean is equal to the population standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size.

Central Limit Theorem.

The standard deviation of a sampling distribution of the mean is known as the _____________________, and provides an estimate of the extent to which the mean of any one sample randomly drawn from a population can be expected to vary from the population mean as the result of sampling error. It is calculated with the following formula:

Standard Error of the Mean.

The ______________ the population and the ______________ the sample size, the ______________ the standard error of the mean, and vice versa.

###
- Larger
- Smaller
- Larger

_________________________ is the foundation of inferential statistics.

Sampling distribution.

The ______________ hypothesis is stated in a way that implies that the independent variable does not have an effect on the dependent variable. It is expressed as H_{0}. It is always expressed in terms of a specific population parameter (e.g., mean, etc.).

Null.

The ____________________ hypothesis is stated in such a way that implies that the independent variable does have an effect on the dependent variable. It is expressed as H_{1}.

Alternative.

Convention dictates the use of a _______________________ alternative hypothesis unless there are experimental or theoretical grounds for choosing a _______________ one.

###
- Nondirectional
- Directional

The _________________ region lies on one or both tails of the sampling distribution and contains the sample values that are not likely to occur simply as the result of sampling error. It is defined by the following symbol:

Rejection.

The ___________________ region lies in the central portion of the sampling distribution and contains the values that are likely to occur as a consequence of sampling error only.

Retention.

If an alpha is set at .05, then ___% of the sampling distribution represents the rejection region.

5%.

If the Null hypothesis (H_{0}) is true, and researchers retain it, the decision is considered _________________ and symbolized by 1-Alpha.

Correct.

If H_{0} is true, and it is rejected, this is called a ______________ Error, and is symbolized by Alpha. As Alpha increases (e.g., .01 to .05), the probability of making this type of error also increases.

Type I.

If H_{0} is false, and it is retained, this is called a _______________ Error, and is symbolized by ß. It is more likely when alpha is low, the sample size is small, and the independent variable is not administered in sufficient intensity.

Type II.

If H_{0} is False, and it is rejected, this is considered _______________, is symbolized by 1 - ß.

Correct.

When a statistical test enables an investigator to reject a false H_{0}, the test is said to have _______________________.

Statistical power.

The following are all ways of increasing a study's statistical power:

- Increase _____________
- Increase the sample size
- Increase the effects of the _______
- Minimize error
- Use a _______________ when appropriate
- Use a parametric test