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Immunology Week 1 Cards > the Cells of Immunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in the Cells of Immunity Deck (45):
1

Range of white blood cells in body

4500, 11000 (7400)

2

Range of neutrophils

1800-7700 (4400)

3

Range of Eosinophils

0-450 (200)

4

Basophils

0-200 (40)

5

Monocytes

0-800 (300)

6

Lymphocytes

1000-4800 (2500)

7

Phagocytes: Primary functions

ingest, destroy microbes, and "scavenge"

scavenger effect = phagocytic removal of dead matter and debris

8

Which cells are considered phagocytes?

neutrophils and macrophages

9

Steps in functional response to phagocytes:

recruitment of the cells to the sites of infection

Recognition of and activation by microbes

ingestion via phagocytosis

destruction of ingested microbes

10

Activated phagocytes secrete what? and why?

cytokines, promote immune responses

11

Neutrophils in Normal blood smear

also called polynuclear leukocytes because of nucleus is segmented into 3-5 connected bodies

12

diameter of a neutrophil

12-15 micrometers

13

time wise, what part of the inflammatory process does the neutrophil mediate?

the earliest

14

Neutrophils are produced in the

bone marrow

15

T/F Neutrophils arise from the same precursors that give rise to mononuclear phagocytes

T

16

an adult produces more than

1 x 10^11 neutrophils a day

17

How long do neutrophils circulate in the blood?

from a few hours to days

18

After entering tissues specifically, how long do neutrophils live?

1-2 days and then die

19

Production of neutrophils is stimulated by

a cytokine called granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

20

Neutrophil _____ _____ stain with ______ dyes

specific granules, neutral

21

Eosinophils stain with ____ dyes

eosin

22

Basophils stain with ___ dyes

basic

23

Neutrophils respond to microbes of different sizes. How? What happens?

1.Neutrophils bind/internalize yeast cells
2.sequester them in phagosomes
3. fuse with azurophilic granules which release ROS and enzymes such neutrophil elastase into phag., contributing to their death
4. molecules as large as the hyphae (unicellular yeast) however cant be engulfed, so azurophilic granules are free to deliver their contents instead into the nucleus, which triggers chromatin decondensation and the release of NETs,
5. NETs contribute to immobalization and killing of extracellular organisms, but at the cost of tissue damage.

24

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs)

DNA and histones, decorated by proteins from primary granules and secondary granules

mitochondria can also serve as a source of DNA for NET

25

Formation of NETs

rapid, active process (occurs in 3 minutes)

possibly mediated by a cell death-dependent process referred to as NETosis

26

NETosis process (2 events)

chromatin condensation, nuclear membrane disintegration

27

4 medical conditions associated with NETosis

bacterial clearance, thrombosis, sepsis, SLE

28

Mast cells, Basophils, Eosinophils

Leukocytes

Play role in innate AND adaptive immune responses

protect against helminths and reactions that cause allergic diseases

29

Mast, basophils, Eosinophils are active in innate AND adaptive immunity T/F

T

30

Common trait between Mast cells, basophils and Eosinophils

Share the common feature of having cytoplasmic granules filled with various inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators

31

what are in those granules the granulocytes all have?

inflammatory and antimicrobial mediators

32

Mast cells and staining

Mast cells contain histamine and other mediators, and stain purple with Giemsa

33

Basophils and staining

basophils stain blue with Giemsa

34

Eosinophils and staining

Eosinophils contain basic proteins and stain red with acidic dye and eosin

35

RED/BLUE/PURPLE indicates what cells dyed?

Purple = Mast cells (with Giemsa)
Blue = Basophils (with Giemsa)
Red = Eosinophils (with acidic dyes and Eosin)

36

Strategic Location of Mast Cells

Common at sites in the body that are EXPOSED TO THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT such as the skin

found near blood vessels, where they can regulate vascular permeability and effector-cell recruitment

mast cells can modulate the behavior of neighborhood cell populations

37

Neutrophils: Specific Granule

Lactoferrin
Lysozyme
Secretory phospholipase A2

38

Neutrophil: Azurophil granule

Elastase
Lysozyme
Myeloperoxidase
Cathespin
Acid hydrolases

39

Granules in a Neutrophil include

Specific granules, azurophilic granules, tertiary granules

40

Mononuclear Phagocyte System includes...

circulating monocytes and resident tissue macrophages

41

Mononuclear Phagocyte System

macrophages play role in both innate and adaptive immunity

42

"Long lived macrophages" do what?

take up residence in specific tissues, and assume specialize phenotypes depending on the organ

43

Cells of the macrophage lineage arise from...

committed precursors in the bone marrow, driven by monocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)

44

Mature monocytes...

enter blood circulation, and then migrate into tissues, where they further mature into macrophages, especially during inflammation

45

Origin and maturation of mononuclear phagocytes

fetus, yolk

take up residence in specific tissues, and assume specialize phenotypes depending on the organ