The changing importance of ports, entrepôts and trade routes within the UK and throughout the Empire, 1763-1914 Flashcards Preview

Edexcel History A-Level (Paper 3, Option 35.1: Britain: losing and gaining an empire, 1763–1914)- Theme 1/ The changing nature and extent of trade > The changing importance of ports, entrepôts and trade routes within the UK and throughout the Empire, 1763-1914 > Flashcards

Flashcards in The changing importance of ports, entrepôts and trade routes within the UK and throughout the Empire, 1763-1914 Deck (61)
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1

When was the acquisition of Singapore?

1819

2

Which base were Europeans not granted to leave in China?

Canton

3

The name of guild of merchants that Europeans were only licensed to deal with?

'Hongs' (also taxed heavily)

4

Who owned the Straits of Malacca?

The Dutch

5

What was the problem regarding shipping through the Straits of Malacca?

Piracy and high tarriffs

6

Which colonial administrator aided with the acquisition of Singapore?

Sir Stamford Raffles

7

How much trade passed through Singapore in 1819 and 1824?

400,000 to 11 million spanish dollars

8

Which areas did the British give up to the Dutch in order to confirm the acquisition of Singapore?

Bencoolen and Sumatra

9

What is the main characteristic of an entrêpot?

Could dock without incurring taxes or tarriffs

10

By 1846, how many trading houses were there in Singapore?

20

11

On two occasions British Ambassadors were sent to the Chinese court to negotiate better terms for British Merchants, but returned empty-handed. In which two years were these ambassadors sent?

1792 and 1816

12

Which area was considered to be very dangerous due to piracy between Singapore and Canton?

North Borneo and the Philippines (roughly 100 ships)

13

Which good was being traded by British Merchants due to the dip in demand from other goods?

Opium (an imperial edict against opium trading was made in 1729)

14

How many tons of opium was traded in the years 1775, 1800 and 1822?

75; 200; 347

15

How much opium was imported by China by 1839?

2,553 tons

16

How many users of opium were there in China?

4-12 million

17

How much opium was burned by Chinese troops in 1839?

1000 tons

18

Who was Foreign Secretary at the time that followed policies of gunboat diplomacy?

Lord Palmerston

19

What were Palmerston's instructions to the Royal Navy (the main ship was Nemesis) in regards to seizing Hong Kong in 1841?

'a convenient part of the Chinese territory'

20

What was the population of Hong Kong between 1841 and 1900?

15,000 and 300,000

21

What did they agree at the Treaty of Nanking in 1842?

21 million silver dollars (5% interest for later payments); cede the island of Hong Kong to Britain; Open: Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo and Shanghai (import tariffs at 5%) and grant British citizens legal protection in China

22

Which river is Shanghai near to?

Yangtze river

23

When did the US and French have a settlement in Shanghai?

1848 and 1849

24

When was the Shanghai Municipal Council formed?

1854 (Chinese citizens could not sit on the council)

25

How much opium was traded in 1880?

6,500 tons

26

How many people died in the Taiping Rebellion?

20-30 million

27

How many were employed as a result of the British outsourcing the collection of customs tariffs by the end of the 19th century?

3,000

28

When did Napoleon invade Egypt?

1798

29

In 1846, a French group of experts said that the difference in sea level to build the Suez Canal was negligible, but which French entrepreneur in 1854 gained permission from the Khedive of Egypt?

Ferdinand de Lesseps

30

The Khedive of Egypt allowed the building of the Suez Canal in return for a lease, how long was the lease?

99 years

31

How much of the Suez Canal did the Khedive of Egypt purchase?

44%

32

Between which years was the Suez Canal built?

1859 to 1869

33

What was the estimated and actually cost to build the Suez Canal?

Estimated= 200 million francs; Actual= 433 million francs

34

How much, in terms of tonnage, went through the Suez Canal in 1870?

436,000 tons

35

What percentage of shipping entering Britain from Asia was on steamships in 1868?

2%

36

What percentage of shipping from Europe, North America and the Mediterranean was carried on steamships in 1868?

60%

37

Between 1868 and 1874, by what percentage did the steamship tonnage increase from Asia?

178%

38

By 1874, what percentage of the the tonnage passing though the Suez Canal was British?

75%

39

How much did Disraeli borrow from the Rothschilds to purchase the khedive's shares of the Suez Canal?

£4,000,000

40

What were the dividends of the shares in the Suez Canal in 1911?

33% (when the tonnage through the Canal reached 18.3 million tons)

41

In which decade was the Sultanate of Zanzibar created?

1830s

42

50,000 slaves would be traded annually from Zanzibar, but when was the exportation of slaves banned in Zanzibar?

1822

43

Between 1859 and 1879, what was the number of ships docking at Zanzibar?

1859= 65 ships and 1879= 96

44

Between 1859 and 1879, what was the tonnage passing through Zanzibar?

1859= 18,877 tons and 1879= 95,403 tons

45

When was a treaty fixing import duties at 5% established by the Sultan of Zanzibar?

1844

46

Who headed the German initiative for trading concessions in mainland Africa in 1884?

Karl Peters

47

How much capital was secured for the intended East German Trading Company before the Kaiser invested £25,000 in 1887?

£8,750

48

When was it declared the Karl Peters was under imperial protection?

1885

49

Who owned the Zanzibar-Aden steamship service?

William Mackinnon

50

How much was raised by Mackinnon for a 'British East Africa Association'?

£250,000 (£25,000 from Mackinnon himself)

51

How much was the 'British East Africa Association' expenditure and revenue in 1892?

Expenditure= £85,000 and revenue= £35,000

52

When did the British Government fund a railway from Mombasa to Uganda?

1896

53

In the 1890 treaty between Germany and Britain, what did Germany give up any rights in Zanzibar in exchange for?

A small island in the North Sea

54

In 1896 the pro-British Sultan died leading to the cousin seizing power and consequently the British bombarded the city. How many Zanzibari casualties were there?

500 casualties

55

When was the acquisition of Zanzibar?

1890

56

When did Russia abandon territorial advances in Chinese Turkistan due to the threat of war from China?

1881

57

Which port did the Japanese forces obtain after defeating Chinese forces based in Korea in 1894?

Port Arthur

58

How many ships were stationed in the region by Russia, France and Germany in Port Arthur?

38 ships

59

How many ships were stationed in the region by Japan in Port Arthur before they backed down to Russia?

31 ships

60

When did Russia seize Port Arthur?

December 1895

61

When was Weihaiwei secured for the British?

1898