The Coastal Zone Flashcards Preview

Geography > The Coastal Zone > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Coastal Zone Deck (53):
1

Arch

A headland that has been broken through by the sea to form a gap under a precariously hanging piece of rock

2

Attrition

Rock fragments carried by the sea knock into one another making them smaller and more rounded

3

Backwash

The motion of the wave that returns the sediment back to the sea. Movement perpendicular to shore along line of least resistance

4

Bar

A spit that has grown across a bay

5

Bay

A softer weaker part of the coastline which erodes faster than the headlands, often with a beach

6

Beach

A build up of sand and sediment along part of the coast

7

Beach nourishment

Adding sand/shingle to a beach to manage it's size

8

Bedding plane

A weakness between different layers (strata) of rock

9

Carrying capacity

Potential of waves to move sediment

10

Cave

A hollowed-out feature at the base of a cliff

11

Constructive wave

A wave where the swash is bigger than the backwash

12

Corrasion

Fragments of rock picked up and hurled by sea at a cliff

13

Cost-benefit analysis

Weighing up the costs of different approaches against the costs of not implementing them in order to make a financially sound decision

14

Deposition

Processes whereby material is left behind

15

Destructive wave

A wave where the swash is smaller than the backwash

16

Dune regeneration

Adding vegetation to bind sand dunes

17

Erosion

Break down of rock by an external agent (waves)

18

Estuary

The tidal mouth of a river where it meets the sea

19

Fetch

The distance waves travel before hitting a coastline

20

Freeze-thaw weathering

Water entering gaps, freezing, expanding by 9%. Repeated action breaks off loose bits of cliffs

21

Groynes

Timber of rock structures that prevent sediment being moved away from part of the beach by trapping it

22

Hard engineering

Building artificial structures in an attempt to slow down coastal erosion

23

Headland

A harder more resistant part of the coastline that sticks out to sea

24

Hydraulic power

Sheer power of the waves smashing onto the cliffs, blasting holes in the rock causing it to break apart

25

Impermeable rock

A rock that doesn't allow water into it ie. clay

26

Joints

Small cracks in the rock formed during earth movements

27

Longshore drift

The transport of sediment along a stretch of coastline caused by a prevailing wind attacking the beach at an oblique angle

28

Managed retreat

Allowing certain parts of the coastline to erode as part of a sustainable approach ie. Happisburgh

29

Permeable rock

Rock that allows water into it ie. limestone

30

Pioneer plant

The first species to colonise an area (often grasses)

31

Prevailing wind

Direction from which the wind most frequently comes

32

Revetments

Wooden structures on the beach running parallel to the coast which absorb the waves' energy

33

Rock armour

Piles of large boulders dumped at the base of a cliff absorbing wave energy

34

Rockfall

Fragments of rock falling from the cliff face

35

Rotational slip

A slump of rock around a curved surface

36

Saltation

A hopping or bouncing motion of particles too heavy to be suspended

37

Salt marsh

Low-lying coastal wetland

38

Sea wall

Concrete or rock barrier placed at the foot of cliffs

39

Sedimentary rock

Rock laid down in layers at the bottom of the ocean and formed under the pressure of overlying oceans

40

Shoreline Management Plan (SMP)

An integrated coastal management plan for a stretch of coastline in England or Wales

41

Soft engineering

A sustainable approach to managing the coast without using artificial structures

42

Solution

Rocks dissolved by seawater (eg. limestone)

43

Spit

A finger of new land jutting out from the coast into the sea

44

Stack

An isolate pinnacle of rock sticking out to sea at the end of a headland

45

Stump

A stack that has been eroded down

46

Suspension

Particles carried by the water

47

Swash

The forwards movement of the wave up the beach. Parallel to the prevailing wind

48

Traction

Large pebbles rolled along the seabed

49

Vegetation succession

A sequence of vegetation species colonising an environment

50

Wave-cut notch

A small indentation cut into a cliff at level of high tide caused by marine erosion

51

Wave-cut platform

A wide gently sloping rocky surface at the foot of a cliff

52

Weathering

Break down of rock in situ (in one place)

53

Abrasion

The sandpaper effect of pebbles grinding over a rocky platform making it smooth