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Flashcards in The Development Gap Deck (36):
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Development

(Usually) positive change in a country's economic, social and political circumstances

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Development measure (indicator)

Statistics used to show level of development which allows countries to be compared

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GDP/Capita

Gross Domestic Product: the total value of the goods and services produced in a country in a year, divided by it's population (this aids comparison between countries). It gives a sense of the economic development of a country

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GNI/Capita

Gross National Income - GDP/Capita but GNI includes money wasn't overseas eg. through TNCs or remittance

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Death rate

The number of deaths per 1000 of population per year. Less useful as a development indicator as death rates are high for both very poor and very rich countries

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Birth rate

The number of births per 1000 of population per year. Low birth rates are typical of more developed countries

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Adult literacy

The percentage of adult population that can read and write. Higher in developed countries

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Infant mortality

Number of children that die before they reach 1st birthday per 1000 of population. Lower in developed economies

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Human development index (HDI)

Development indicator combing GDP/Capita (PPP), life expectancy, adult literacy and number of years of schooling. Highest value possible = 1

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Correlation

Relationship. Can be seen on scatter graphs when two development indicator variables are compared. Can be positive or negative

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Standard of living

Concerns how much money and material possessions people have. Can be measured in GNI/Capita

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Quality of life

Concerns whether people are happy with their lives - this may be he case I'd they have good incomes, health, education, clean environment, community links, family ties etc. can be partly measured by HDI but includes other data

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Debt relief

Forgiving a debt, in part or in total, by one country to another

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Conservation swaps

A type of debit relief where he lending country exchanges the debt to encourage environmental protection

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Trade

The exchange of goods and services between countries

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Exports

Goods and services sold by a country

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Imports

Goods and services bought by a country

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Trade balance

Difference between value of a country's imports and exports

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Trade surplus

Occurs when a country's exports exceed value of it's imports

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Trade deficit

Occurs when a country's imports exceed value of it's exports

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Trade grouping

Where several countries get together for he purpose of trying to increase the volume and value of trade eg. The European Union (EU) and the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA)

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Tariffs

Taxes paid on imports into a country. Usually put in place to protect the value of home produced goods

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Quotas

A limit on amount/volume of goods that can be imported

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Free trade

Where trade between countries is not restricted by any tariffs or quotas - eg. Trade within the EU

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Fair trade

A system whereby agricultural producers in less developed nations are paid fair (often higher price than market price) for the goods they produce. The extra cost is passed onto consumers

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Shot term aid

Aid given to relieve a disaster situation eg. food, shelter etc.

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Long term aid

Aid given over a long period to encourage development of country

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Donor country

Country giving aid to another country

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Receiving country

Country receiving aid from another country

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Bilateral aid

Aid given directly from one country to another - it may be "tied" to include trade and business agreements

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Multilateral aid

Where a number of richer nations give money to bodies such as he IMF or the world bank and this money is then distributed to countries to those who are less developed

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Top down aid

Aid given to governments so they can decide how the money is spent - ideal for large infrastructure projects etc. can lead to corruption or misuse if the money

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Bottom up aid

Aid given directly to communities, often through NGOs (non governmental organisations) for essential needs such as water supply

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Economic periphery

The edge of a country or region in terms of economics - a less well developed area eg. Eastern Europe in the EU

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Economic core

The centre of a country or region in terms of economics - a more developed area eg. Germany, France, UK in EU

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Sustainable development

Development which allows economic growth to occur and continue without harm to the environment or communities. It will benefit people alive today and does not negatively affect future generations ability to benefit.