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Flashcards in Population Deck (41):
1

Exponential growth

A pattern where the growth rate constantly increases - often shown as a J-curve

2

BR

Number of babies born alive 1000 people per year (UK 10.7)

3

DR

Number of deaths per 1000 people per year (UK 10.1)

4

Life expectancy

Number of years a person is expected to live, usually taken from birth

5

NIC

Newly industrialised country
-emerging industrial nations eg. Asian tigers, Malaysia, Philippines, China

6

Demographic transition model

Used to describe how BR and DR affect total population and how they are likely to change for different countries as they develop

7

Rural to urban migration (or vice versa)

Moving home from a rural area to settle in a city (or vice versa)
-urban-rural: MEDCs - seek better quality of life - work using telecommunications technology or commute to city daily (contribute to rush hour)

8

Natural increase/decrease

Difference between BR and DR (inc or dec of pop growth) (excludes immigration) -BR-DR
-could be because of epidemic/war/natural disaster/fertility rate dec etc

9

Ageing population

Population structure (often MEDCs) often high proportion of elderly people (advances in nutrition/medical care) - issues:
-don't work
-need healthcare, pensions, social support, sheltered housing etc from taxes paid by smaller proportion of workers
-more young people employed in caring for elderly - removed from more productive jobs within economy - harms countries competitiveness

10

Child dependency ratio

Number of children in relation to number of working people, usually expressed as a ratio

11

Counter-urbanisation

Movement of people in MEDCs away from urban areas to live in smaller towns and villages

12

Dependency ratio

Ratio between those of working age and non working age

13

Dependent population

Those who rely on working population for support ie. elderly/young

14

Economic migrant

Person leaving their country to seek better economic opportunities (jobs) and so settle temporarily in another country

15

Economically active

People in employment who have to support dependent population

16

Emigrant

Someone who leaves an area to live elsewhere

17

Ethnic group

Group of people a person belongs to categorised by race/nationality/language/religion/culture

18

Family planning

Using contraception to control the size of your family

19

Ghetto

An urban district containing a high proportion of one particular ethnic group

20

Gross National Product (GNP) per capita

Total value of goods produced and services provided by a country in a year, divided by the total population

21

Human development index

Social welfare index, adopted by UN as a measure of development, based upon life expectancy (health), adult literacy (education), and real GNP per capita (economic)

22

Immigrant

Someone who moves into an area from elsewhere

23

Infant mortality

Number of babies dying before their first birthday per 1000 live births

24

Literacy rate

Proportion of total population able to read and write

25

Migrant

Someone who moves from one place to another to live

26

Migration

Movement of people

27

Natural population change

Difference in number between those who are born and those who die in one year (additional effects of migration are not included)

28

Net migration

Difference between number of emigrants and immigrants

29

Overpopulation

Too many people and not enough resources to support a satisfactory quality of life

30

Population change

Births - deaths + in-migration - out-migration

31

Population density

Number of people per square kilometre

32

Population pyramid

A graph which shows the age and sex structure of a place

33

Push-pull factors

Encourage or force people to leave a particular place; pull = economic and social attractions (real and imagined) offered by destination; push = downsides of origin

34

Quality of life

Things (eg housing) that affect your standard of living

35

Refugees

People forced to move from where they live to another area

36

Segregation

Where immigrant groups such as Turks in Germany become increasingly isolated in inner city areas of poor housing

37

Sparsely populated

An area that has few people living in it

38

Structure (of a population)

Relative percentages of people of different age groups, usually shown on a population pyramid

39

Urbanisation

Growth of towns and cities leading to an increasing proportion of a country's population living there; gradual process common in LEDCs where 1 million people move from the countryside to cities every 3 days

40

Youthful population

In the population structure of LEDCs there is often a higher proportion of young people due to high birth rates and a reduction in infant mortality due to better nutrition, education and medical care - may create problems (children need feeding/housing/education/job (eventually)) - medical care/education has to be paid for by taxing a proportionally small number of workers

41

Transmigration

Migration within a country