Flashcards in The Cold War Deck (28)
What was the Cold War?
The term was used to describe the conflict
Was a war or words, threats between USA and USSR, two superpowers who emerged after WWII
What are the long term causes for the Cold War?
USA (capitalism) and USSR (communism), each believed that their government was best and wanted other countries to follow it and feared the other was going to destroy it.
-Stalin was suspicious of the West and didn't trust them.
USSR had been invaded before, Stalin thought it was essential to have friendly countries to prevent this again.
-USA had policy changes:
Believed isolationism didn't work
Dictators had to be confronted
Wanted protect its market (communist countries wouldn't buy american goods)
Was the richest country & wanted to have a say in how other countries were run
Was confident no other country had nuclear weapons
Why was hostility between USA and USSR suspended in 1941?
Both wanted to destroy Hitler
What were short term causes of Cold War?
Who was at the Teheran conference (1943)?
What was agreed at Teheran conference?
Plan war strategy against Germany
Who were the main leaders at Yalta?
What was the main argument at Yalta?
Future of post-war europe, created UN, had the idea of dividing GER/AUS berlin/vienna into 3 zones of occupation, Russia would fight against Japan, free elections in eastern europe
What were the attitudes of each leader in Yalta?
Even though he was very ill, he was keen that democracy should be introduced into eastern europe.
Trusted Stalin, wanted USA and USSR to stay in good terms.
Was very concerned about Poland´s future.
Wanted to stop Stalin from imposing communism
In 1939 Britain had fone to war to help Poland, and didn't want to abandon them now.
Was obsessed with security of USSR
Wanted Soviet Union to retain Polish territory he had taken in 1939 in Nazi-Soviet pact.
Wanted to make sure the new government of Poland would be friendly towards USSR
Why was Poland the centre of attention in Yalta?
Poland was the largest country in Eastern Europe, its post war settlement was likely to set a pattern for the rest of the Eastern Europe
What were the 2 groups that wanted to form the new government for Poland? What did they want?
The London Poles:
They were Catholics and landowners, who hated Stalin because he had carved up through the German-Soviet pact
Stalin knew that they would be hostile to USSR
The Lublin Poles:
In the town of Lublin, USSR set up its own future government for Poland, they were communists
Stalin felt they could be trusted
What was the Warsaw Uprising?
-London Poles wanted to take control of part of Poland before Red Army
-1944 attacked German forces occupying Warsaw
-Soviet army did nothing bc Stalin didn't want to defeat GER
-Poles lost, then red army took over city which was deserted, then they over whole Poland
-By 1945 Lublin group became in charge
Terms of the Yalta agreements
Free election were to be held in Poland
USSR to help war against Japan
GER to be divided into 4 zones
Setting up of United Nations
Weaknesses of Yalta agreement?
Soviets & americans interpreted it differently, for roosevelt democracy was free elections, for Stalin it was communism
Compromise over future of Poland was not wasn't possible
Roosevelt was proud of the agreement but not at how Stalin put in practice
What were Truman`s ideas?
Insisted Soviets to carry Yalta agreement & allow free elections in Poland
Who was at Potsdam conference (1945)?
Churchill was replaced by Attlee a month after
What happened at Potsdam conference?
There were no long term agreements
Truman told Stalin they had an atomic bomb
German reparations were agreed
No Nazi Party
4 zones of occupation (usa, britain, soviets, france)
Nüremberg trials - war crimes
Reparations paid from each zone
Why did Truman tell Stalin about atomic bomb?
-Thought it put USA on a stronger position
-Thought it would take at least 20 years for Soviet union to develop an atomic bomb (only took 4)
What is the Iron Curtain?
Term for the division of soviet side on eastern europe
Why did Stalin take control of Eastern Europe?
He wanted a buffer zone, friendly states around Russia made sure that Russia could not be invaded again
How did Stalin take control of eastern europe?
Elections were rigged, destroyed opposition, army came in, salami tactic: take in by small pieces at a time
Albania: immediately took power
Bulgaria: Executed non-communists
East-Germany: was a zone given in postam conference
Romania: took part in coalition government first but gradually took over
Poland: arrested non-communists
Hungary:executed & arrested opponents, head of catholic church was imprisoned
Czechoslovakia: Communists controlled radio, army, police. Non-communists were arrested.
What what the 1947 crisis?
Economic crisis in Western Europe
starvation, poor harvest
winter was fierce, people were hungry
What was there the Truman Doctrine?
-USA offered financial help for Greece and Turkey
-He later offered help of anyone trying to fight communism
-Based on the idea of containment: usa would use its wealth and power to stop/contain spread of communism
Why was there the Truman Doctrine?
-In 1947 Britain told the americans they could no longer afford troops in Greece & turkey
-Unless USA replaced British troops, Greece & Turkey would be easily under Soviet control
-USA didn't want soviets to take control
What was the Marshall plan?
-It was a plan to help economy of western Europe
-USA gave financial support
Why was there the Marshall plan?
- In 1947 a belief emerged that Communism could only be stopped if western Europe became wealthy
-The plan angered the soviets as it was a step towards the division of Germany
Why was the Marshal plan a success?
-By 1952 when the plan ended the countries of western Europe were on a period of great economic recovery
-Economically, western area of Germany was function as if it was its own country
-European countries were encouraged to reduce import taxes which increased trade
-USA was building wealthy trading partners who would want to buy high amount of goods