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Flashcards in The Cold War Deck (28)
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1

What was the Cold War?

The term was used to describe the conflict
Was a war or words, threats between USA and USSR, two superpowers who emerged after WWII

2

What are the long term causes for the Cold War?

-Different Ideologies:
USA (capitalism) and USSR (communism), each believed that their government was best and wanted other countries to follow it and feared the other was going to destroy it.

-Stalin was suspicious of the West and didn't trust them.
USSR had been invaded before, Stalin thought it was essential to have friendly countries to prevent this again.

-USA had policy changes:
Believed isolationism didn't work
Dictators had to be confronted
Wanted protect its market (communist countries wouldn't buy american goods)
Was the richest country & wanted to have a say in how other countries were run
Was confident no other country had nuclear weapons

3

Why was hostility between USA and USSR suspended in 1941?

Both wanted to destroy Hitler

4

What were short term causes of Cold War?

Conferences:

5

Who was at the Teheran conference (1943)?

Stalin
Churchill
Roosevelt

6

What was agreed at Teheran conference?

Plan war strategy against Germany

7

Who were the main leaders at Yalta?

Churchill
Stalin
Roosevelt

8

What was the main argument at Yalta?

Future of post-war europe, created UN, had the idea of dividing GER/AUS berlin/vienna into 3 zones of occupation, Russia would fight against Japan, free elections in eastern europe

9

What were the attitudes of each leader in Yalta?

Roosevelt:
Even though he was very ill, he was keen that democracy should be introduced into eastern europe.
Trusted Stalin, wanted USA and USSR to stay in good terms.

Churchill:
Was very concerned about Poland´s future.
Wanted to stop Stalin from imposing communism
In 1939 Britain had fone to war to help Poland, and didn't want to abandon them now.

Stalin:
Was obsessed with security of USSR
Wanted Soviet Union to retain Polish territory he had taken in 1939 in Nazi-Soviet pact.
Wanted to make sure the new government of Poland would be friendly towards USSR

10

Why was Poland the centre of attention in Yalta?

Poland was the largest country in Eastern Europe, its post war settlement was likely to set a pattern for the rest of the Eastern Europe

11

What were the 2 groups that wanted to form the new government for Poland? What did they want?

The London Poles:
Anti-Soviet
They were Catholics and landowners, who hated Stalin because he had carved up through the German-Soviet pact
Stalin knew that they would be hostile to USSR

The Lublin Poles:
In the town of Lublin, USSR set up its own future government for Poland, they were communists
Stalin felt they could be trusted

12

What was the Warsaw Uprising?

-London Poles wanted to take control of part of Poland before Red Army
-1944 attacked German forces occupying Warsaw
-Soviet army did nothing bc Stalin didn't want to defeat GER
-Poles lost, then red army took over city which was deserted, then they over whole Poland
-By 1945 Lublin group became in charge

13

Terms of the Yalta agreements

Free election were to be held in Poland
USSR to help war against Japan
GER to be divided into 4 zones
Setting up of United Nations

14

Weaknesses of Yalta agreement?

Soviets & americans interpreted it differently, for roosevelt democracy was free elections, for Stalin it was communism

Compromise over future of Poland was not wasn't possible

Roosevelt was proud of the agreement but not at how Stalin put in practice

15

What were Truman`s ideas?

Insisted Soviets to carry Yalta agreement & allow free elections in Poland

16

Who was at Potsdam conference (1945)?

Truman
Stalin
Churchill was replaced by Attlee a month after

17

What happened at Potsdam conference?

There were no long term agreements
Truman told Stalin they had an atomic bomb
German reparations were agreed
German-Polish borders
No Nazi Party
4 zones of occupation (usa, britain, soviets, france)
Nüremberg trials - war crimes
Reparations paid from each zone

18

Why did Truman tell Stalin about atomic bomb?

-Thought it put USA on a stronger position
-Thought it would take at least 20 years for Soviet union to develop an atomic bomb (only took 4)

19

What is the Iron Curtain?

Term for the division of soviet side on eastern europe

20

Why did Stalin take control of Eastern Europe?

He wanted a buffer zone, friendly states around Russia made sure that Russia could not be invaded again

21

How did Stalin take control of eastern europe?

Elections were rigged, destroyed opposition, army came in, salami tactic: take in by small pieces at a time

Albania: immediately took power
Bulgaria: Executed non-communists
East-Germany: was a zone given in postam conference
Romania: took part in coalition government first but gradually took over
Poland: arrested non-communists
Hungary:executed & arrested opponents, head of catholic church was imprisoned
Czechoslovakia: Communists controlled radio, army, police. Non-communists were arrested.

22

What what the 1947 crisis?

Economic crisis in Western Europe
unemployment
starvation, poor harvest
winter was fierce, people were hungry

23

What was there the Truman Doctrine?

-USA offered financial help for Greece and Turkey
-He later offered help of anyone trying to fight communism
-Based on the idea of containment: usa would use its wealth and power to stop/contain spread of communism

24

Why was there the Truman Doctrine?

-In 1947 Britain told the americans they could no longer afford troops in Greece & turkey
-Unless USA replaced British troops, Greece & Turkey would be easily under Soviet control
-USA didn't want soviets to take control

25

What was the Marshall plan?

-It was a plan to help economy of western Europe
-USA gave financial support

26

Why was there the Marshall plan?

- In 1947 a belief emerged that Communism could only be stopped if western Europe became wealthy
-The plan angered the soviets as it was a step towards the division of Germany

27

Why was the Marshal plan a success?

-By 1952 when the plan ended the countries of western Europe were on a period of great economic recovery
-Economically, western area of Germany was function as if it was its own country
-European countries were encouraged to reduce import taxes which increased trade
-USA was building wealthy trading partners who would want to buy high amount of goods

28

3 conflicting explanations for the start of the cold war:

1)USSR was to blame. Stalin planned for a communist take over of the world

2) USA was to blame. Soviet actions were defensive. USA wanted to control its area of influence but refused to allow USSR to do the same

3)Neither side was to blame. Cold war based on misunderstanding and forces beyond control of both sides