cold war Flashcards Preview

IGCSE History > cold war > Flashcards

Flashcards in cold war Deck (16)
Loading flashcards...
1

background

The hostility between the 2 superpowers was suspended in 1941 as they had a common wish to destroy Hitler. But as soon as he died tension re-emerged

2

3 Views On The Causes

USSR was to blame. Stalin wanted a communist takeover on the world

USA was to blame. They wanted to control their area of influence but refused to allow USSR to do the same

Neither was to blame. The cold war was based on misunderstandings on both sides

3

Other Causes

USA and USSR both had completely different views on how the government should work (capitalist vs communist) and did not accept or trust each other ideas

All countries had to chose a side

After WWII, many countries in Europe had been destroyed and both sides argued on who should replace it

USSR distrusted the west as he thought he wasn't as strong as them because he didn't have atomic bombs

USA distrusted Stalin because their army stayed in Europe after WWII

4

Yalta Conference

Churchill - Britain

5

Potsdam Conference

Churchill/Attlee - Britain
Truman - USA
Stalin - Russia

Truman told Stalin about the atomic bomb - he thought it would take at least 20 years for soviets to build one, but they had spies & only took 4 years
Truman was tough on Stalin, didn't trust him

—Germany/Berlin would be divided into 4 zones of occupation
—Each country would earn reparations from their zone
—De-nazified Germany

6

Buffer Zones/ The Iron Curtain

Salami tactics - USSR wanted to have buffer zones around Russia. He did this by slowly taking pieces of countries around him.

He wanted to guarantee Russia’ safety. Germany had already invaded 2 times so having the countries in between would be a protection from future German invasion. Also the capitalists wanted to stop communism & it would be difficult to do it if many countries were communist

Churchill referred to the division of east/west Europe by Iron Curtain & opened people’s eyes

7

Kennan’s Long Telegram

Told what the Soviets were really up to, said they must be stopped.

Introduced the idea of the main American policy in the Cold War - Containment (not allowing soviets to expand their territories any further, this way the weaknesses of the communist government would make them fall apart by themselves & a war would be prevented)

8

Iran Crisis

North given to Russia, south to British in order to prevent oil from going to Hitler-
USSR would have to leave after WWII but they refused to, British finally convinced them to.
(Tehran 1943)

9

Turkish Straits Crisis

Russia wanted access & 2 military bases. It was another attempt to influence the area. Russia tried to create a communist party in Turkey & have them to rebel against Ataturk, but it failed.

10

Truman Doctrine

USA gave aid (economic + military) to help fight communism. It was first made for Greece & Turkey but later on it was expanded to all countries trying to fight communism.

Followed the idea that if a country was economically weak, it would end up turning to communism, however if it was strong Stalin would not be able to take over

11

Marshall Plan

Gave financial help to re-build Europe after WWII. It would economically stop Soviets from taking over Europe.

It was given to all European countries, except: Spain (didn’t want to give $ to a fascist dictator- Franco), Finland (was afraid of Russia invading as they are very close on map), Switzerland (didn’t need it), Hungary and Poland (first accepted it, but then Stalin told them no to).

The plan was a success. Soviets responded to creating an organisation of communist countries - Cominform.

12

Bizonia

American & England (France at first refused to join but changed mids after 2 years) joined their German zones because it would be economically better & easier to govern. Stalin did not like it because it became bigger than his zone

13

London Conference

Made to talk about the creation of Federal Republic Of Germany, and creation of Deutsch Mark. Stalin was afraid of a string currency and he wanted to weaken Germany

14

Berlin Blockade

Stalin blocked East/West Berlin, at first some people who were inspected were allowed to go in and out but 1 month later he fully blocked it.

Because Berlin was on the Soviets’ side of Germany he was able to but off electricity and supplies to Berlin, he hoped USA and Britain would leave or starve the citizens so they would turn to communism

15

Berlin Airlift

USA and Britain airlifted supplied to Berlin, Stalin didn't shoot them down because he did not want to be seen as an aggressor

The failure of the blockade changes Russian policy from focusing on Europe to focusing on Asia.

16

NATO

Military protective organisation to fight communism