Flashcards in The Experiments Deck (19):
Briefly describe Triplett's Competition Studies
Wanted to know how the presence of others impacted an individuals performance.
-Tested children's performance on bicycles
What are 3 theories associated with Triplett's Competition study
Descibre LaPierres Hospitality Study
-Wanted to know what peoples attitude were to a Chinese couple.
-Went to several hospitality establishments and watched to see if the Chinese couple would be refused.
-then sent the same establishments questionnaires to measure the attitudes of people.
What are some of the ideas associated with LaPierre' study. 5.
Attitudes - explicit and implicit, Attitude accessibility
What are two theories from Festinger's end of world study
Social Comparison theory, which focused on the social aspect
Briefly explain the Cognitive dissonance Study
1st: was festinger as an observer of the end of world participant, 4 components
2nd: Induced compliance--lab experiment where people had to turn pegs and then tell another student how much fun it was while being paid either a low amount or high amount.
-being paid the low amount actually increased dissonance and had the effect of having students say they like it compared to being paid the high amount where the effects were not seen as much
What are the 4 components of the first study Festinger did for cognitive dissonance.
Complete Participant: fully apart of the role and may observe
Participant as observer: part of role they are apart of the group being studies
observer as participant: researcher has minimal involvement in what is being studied, the observer is not apart of the natural setting
The complete observer: researcher does not take part at all.
Describe the aspects of the experimental context of Ash's Line- Judgement Studies, and what did it study?
1. content of the experiment
It studied conformity,
1. Content of the experiment
a. participants only know one answer to be right and it is clear
b. The right or wrong answer is not important or reflect personal views
c. Participants are isolated when giving a response and an immediate response is required (its impossible to establish why the majority is answering the way they are)
2. The opposition of majority
-giving into the majority is an act of harmony
What are some theories associated with Ash's conformity
social impact theory
Private vs Public conformity
Minority Influence - Blue green after image studies
explain the conversion theory model when exposed to a majority view and a minority view
-Majority view> desire to be liked and be correct > superficial processing of majority’s decision > Public acceptance, private rejection > manifest/public influence
-Minority view > Intrigue and desire to understand > Deep processing of minority’s position > public rejection, private acceptance > latent/private influence.
Briefly describe the Milgram's shock Experiments
- Had participants as the teacher and were told by the experimenter to deliver shocks to the learner. In the baseline experiment the teacher could hear the learner reciting a script of plea to stop. Specifically the learner mentions his heart problems. in this experiment, 26 out of the 40 participants went all the way to the maximum level.
-studies werent consistent
-lack of informed consent
Describe the 4 physical proximity variants in the Milgram Shock experiment
-The remote experiment: learner in a separate room, cannot be heard only feedback at 300 volts (banging on the wall)
-THe voice feedback: like baseline but no mention of heart disease
-Proximity: like second but teacher and learner are in the same room
-Touch Proximity: teacher has to press the participants hand to the shock
-After each the teacher would disobey more and more.
Explain the 3 relationships between the experimenter and participant in the Milgram shock experiment
-when alone together, the participant is more likely to side with the experimenter
-when learner is in the same room, participant more likely to side with the victim
-When there are other disobedient confederates, the participant has social support when defying the experimenter making it more likely and easier to do so.
The three phases in Zimbardos prison experiment
1- settling in
BBC experiment Social Identity theory
people take on the role of a group
member only when they have come to identify with that group – in-group
membership and support increases self-esteem.
3 phases of the sheriff boys camp studies
1- ingroup formation
2- intergroup conflict
3- reduction of conflict
Social Identity theory
THE HYPOTHESIS THAT THE SOCIAL GROUPS TO WHICH WE
BELONG CAN HAVE SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS ON OUR SELF-ESTEEM. IN GENERAL, IDENTIFYING
(OR BEING IDENTIFIED) WITH GROUPS THAT ARE HELD IN HIGH PUBLIC ESTEEM ENHANCES
JigSaw Classroom 6 steps
1. STUDENTS ARE DIVIDED INTO SMALL (5-6 STUDENT) GROUPS THAT ARE DIVERSE IN TERMS OF
GENDER, ETHNICITY, RACE, AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.
2. ONE STUDENT IS SELECTED AS THE LEADER OF THEIR GROUP.
3. THE LESSON OF THE DAY IS DIVIDED INTO 5-6 DISCRETE SEGMENTS.
4. EACH STUDENT IS ASSIGNED A SEGMENT TO LEARN, THEN GIVEN THE OPPORTUNITY TO WORK
WITH STUDENTS FROM THE OTHER GROUPS ASSIGNED TO THE SAME SEGMENT.
5. STUDENTS RETURN TO THEIR OWN JIGSAW GROUP AND PRESENT/TEACH THEIR SEGMENT TO
6. A QUIZ IS ADMINISTERED TO ENSURE THAT THE STUDENTS HAVE MASTERED THE MATERIAL