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Flashcards in The Human Body Deck (213):
1

abdomin

the body cavity that contains the major organs of digestion and excretion; located below diaphragm above the

2

Acetabulum

the depression on lateral pelvis where it's three component bones join, in which the femoral head fits snugly

3

Adam's apple or thyroid cartilage

firm prominence of cartilage that forms the upper part of the larynx. Is more prominent in men than women

4

adenosine triphosphate ATP

nucleotide involved in energy metabolism ; used to store energy

5

adrenal glands

endocrine glands located on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline when stimulated by sympathetic nervous system

6

adrenergic

pertaining to nerves that release the neurotransmitter nurofen a friend, or noradrenaline

7

aerobic metabolism

metabolism that can proceed only in the presence of oxygen

8

agonal gasps

abnormal breathing pattern characterized by slow, gasping breaths, sometimes seen in patients in cardiac arrest

9

Alpha adrenergic receptors

portions of the nervous system that when stimulated can cause constriction of blood vessels

10

alveoli

the air sacs of the lungs in which the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place

11

anaerobic metabolism

metabolism that takes place in absence of oxygen; the main by-product is lactic acid

12

anatomic position

position of reference in which the patient stands facing forward, arms at the side, with Palms of the hands forward

13

aorta

the main artery leaving the left side of the heart and caring freshly oxygenated blood to the body

14

appendicular skeleton

the portion of the skeletal system that comprises the arms, legs, pelvis, and shoulder girdle

15

appendix

hey small, tubular structure that is attached to the lower border of the cecum of the abdominal

16

arterioles

the smallest branches of the arteries leading in the vast network of capillaries

17

articular cartilage

paperly layer of specialized cartilage covering the articular surfaces of bones in the synovial joints

18

atrium

one of the two upper chambers of the heart

19

autonomic nervous system

the part of the nervous system that regulates functions, such as digestion and sweating, that are not controlled voluntarily

20

axial skeleton

the part of the skeleton comprising the skull, spinal column, and rib cage

21

ball and socket joint

a joint that allows internal and external rotation, as well as bending

22

beta adrenergic receptors

portions of the nervous system that, when stimulated, can cause increase in the force of contraction of the heart, and increase heart rate, and bronchial dilation

23

biceps

the large muscle that covers a front of the humerus

24

bile ducts

the ducks that can Vibe I'll between the liver and the intestine

25

blood pressure

the pressure that the blood exerts against the walls of the arteries as it passes through them

26

brachial artery

the major vessel in the upper extremities that supplies blood to the arm

27

brain

controlling organ of the body and center of consciousness; functions include perception, control reactions to the environment, emotional response, and judgment

28

brain stem

area of the brain between the spinal cord and cerebrum, surrounded by the cerebellum; controls functions that are necessary for life, such as respiration

29

capillary vessels

the tiny blood vessels between the arterioles and venules that permit transfer of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and wastes between body tissue and blood

30

cardiac muscle

the heart muscle

31

cardiac output Co

a measure of the volume of blood circulated by the heart in one minute, calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate

32

carotid artery

the major artery that supplies Blood to the Head and brain

33

cartilage

the smooth connective tissue that forms the support structure the skeletal system and provides cushion between bones; also forms and nasal septum and portions of the outer ear

34

cecum

the first part of the large intestine, into which the ileum opens

35

central nervous system

the brain and spinal cord

36

cerebellum

one of the three major subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the little brain; coordinates the various activities of the brain, particularly fine body movements

37

cerebrospinal fluid CSF

fluid production in the ventricles of the brain that flows in the subarachnoid space and bathes in the meninges

38

cerebrum

the largest part of the three subdivisions of the brain, sometimes called the gray matter; made up of several lobes that control movement, hearing, balance, speech, visual perception, emotions and personality

39

cervical spine

the portion of the spinal column consisting of the first seven vertebrae that lie in the neck

40

chordae tendineae

then bands of fibrous tissues that attach to the valves in the heart and prevent them from inverting

41

chyme

the substance that leaves the stomach. eaten Foods and stomach facets

42

circulatory system

the complex arrangement of connected tubes, including the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins, the moves blood, oxygen nutrients, carbon dioxide, and cellular wastes throughout the body

43

clavicle

the collarbon; is lateral to the sternum anterior to the scapula

44

Coccyx

the last three or four vertebrae of the spine tailbone

45

Coronel plane

an imaginary plane where the body is divided into front and back parts

46

cranium

area of the head above the ears and eyes the skull the cranium contains the brain

47

cricoid cartilage

a firm Ridge of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx

48

cricothyroid membrane

a thin sheet of fascia that connects the thyroid and cricoid cartilage that makes up the larynx

49

Dead Space

any portion of the airway that does not contain air and cannot participate in gas exchange, such as trachea and bronchi

50

dermis

the inner layer of skin, containing hair follicles, sweat glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels

51

diaphragm

a muscular Dome that forms the undersurface of the thorax, separating the chest from the abdominal cavity. contraction of this brings air into the lungs. Relaxation allows air to expel from the lungs.

52

diastole

the relaxation, or period of relaxation, of the heart, especially after the ventricles

53

diffusion

movement of gas from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

54

digestion

the process of food that nourishes the individual soul the body

55

dorsalis pedis artery

the artery on the anterior surface of the foot between the first and second metatarsals

56

endocrine system

the complex message and control system that integrates many body functions, including the release of hormones.

57

enzymes

substances designed to speed up the rate of specific biochemical reactions

58

epidermis

the outer layer of skin, which is made up of cells that are sealed together to form a watertight protective covering for the body

59

epiglottis

Ethan, leave shape valve that allows air to pass into the trachea but prevents Food and liquid from entering

60

epinephrine

Adrenaline produced by The General medulla that has a vital role in the function of the sympathetic nervous system

61

esophagus

a collapsible to that extends from the pharynx to the stomach; muscle contractions Propel food and liquids through it to the stomach

62

expiratory Reserve volume

the amount of air that can be expelled from a normal exhalation

63

extension

the straightening of a joint

64

fallopian tubes

long, slender tubes that extend from the uterus to the region of the ovary on the same side and through which the ovum passes from the ovary to the uterus

65

femoral artery

the major artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. IT Supplies blood to the lower abdominal wall, external genitalia, and lakes. It can be palpated in the groin area

66

femoral head

the proximal end of the femur, articulating with the acetabulum to form the hip joint

67

femur

the thigh bone

68

flexion

the bending of a joint

69

foramen magnum

a large opening at the base of the skull through which the brain connects to the spinal cord

70

frontal bone

portion of the cranium that forms the forehead

71

gallbladder

a sack on the undersurface of the liver that collects bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum through the common bile duct

72

genital system

reproductive system in men and women

73

germinal layer

the deepest layer of the epidermis where new skin cells are formed

74

greater trochanter

bony prominence on the proximal lateral side of the thigh, just below the hip joint

75

hair follicles

the small organs that produce hair

76

heart

a hollow muscular organ that pumps blood through the body

77

heart rate

number of heartbeats during a specific time usually 1 minute

78

hinge joint

George that convened in straighten but cannot rotate

79

hormones

substances formed in specialized Oregon's or glands and carry to another Oregon or group of cells in the same organism; regulate many body functions, including metabolism, growth and body temperature

80

humorous

supporting bone of the upper arm

81

hydrostatic pressure

the pressure of water against the walls of its container

82

hypoxic Drive

a backup system to control respiration; senses drops in the oxygen levels in the blood

83

Ilium

one of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring

84

inferior vena cava

one of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic and abdominal organs to the heart.

85

inspiratory Reserve volume

the amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal inhalation; amount of air that can be inhaled in addition to normal tidal volume

86

interstitial space

the space in between the cells

87

involuntary muscle

muscle over which a person has no conscious control. It is found in many automatic regulated systems of the body

88

ischium

one of three bones that fuse from the public ring

89

joint (articulation)

place where two bones come into contact

90

kidneys

2 retroperitoneal organs xr8 the end products of metabolisms that urine and regulate the body salt and water content

91

labored breathing

use of muscles of the chest, back, and abdomen to assist in expanding the chest; occurs when air movement is impaired

92

lactic acid

metallic by product of the breakdown of glucose accumulates when metabolism precedes in absence of oxygen ( anaerobic metabolism)

93

large intestine

the portion of the digestive to that in circles you have Dom and round the small bowel, consisting of the cecum, the colon, and the rectum. helps regulate water balance and eliminate Solid Waste

94

lesser trochanter

projection on the medial Superior portion of the femur

95

ligament

a band of fibrous tissue that connects bones to Bone. It supports and strengthens of joints

96

liver

a large, solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm ; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses.

97

lumbar spine

the lower part of the back, formed by the lowest 5 nonfused vertebrae; also called the dorsal spine

98

Lymph

Heath Inn, straw-colored fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients and hormones to the cells and carries waste products of metabolism away from the cells and back into the capillaries so that they may be exerted

99

lymph nodes

tiny, oval shaped structures located in various places along the lymph vessels filter lymph

100

mandible

the bone of the lower jaw

101

manubrium

the upper corner of the sternum

102

maxillae

the upper jaw bones that assist in the formation of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the palate and hold the upper teeth

103

medulla oblongata

nerve tissue that is continuous and fear of the spinal cord; serves as a conduction pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracks; coordinates heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing, swallowing, vomiting, coughing, and sneezing

104

metabolism (cellular respiration)

the biochemical process that results in production of energy from nutrients within cells

105

midbrain

the part of the brain that is responsible for helping the to regulate the level of consciousness

106

midsagittal plane (midline)

imaginary vertical line drawn from the middle of the forehead through the nose and umbilicus(navel) to the floor, dividing the body into equal left and right halves.

107

minute volume (minute ventilation)

the volume of air that moves in and out of the lungs per minute; calculated by multiplying the title volume of respiratory rate

108

motor nerves

nerves that carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body

109

mucous membrane

lining of body cavities and passages that communicate directly indirectly with the environment outside the body

110

mucus

the watery secretion of the mucous membrane that lubricates the body open

111

musculoskeletal system

the bones and voluntary muscles of the body

112

myocardium

the heart muscle

113

nasopharynx

the part of the pharynx that lies above the level of the roof of the mouth, or palate.

114

nervous system

the system that controls virtually all activities of the body both voluntary and involuntary

115

norepinephrine

can you transmitter and Drug sometimes used in treatment of shock; produces vasoconstriction through its Alpha stimulator properties

116

occiput

the most posterior portion of the cranium

117

oncotic pressure

the pressure of water to move, typically into the capillary, as a result of the presence of plasma protein

118

Orbit

the eye socket, made up of the maxilla and zygoma

119

oropharynx

a tubular structure that extends vertically from the back of the mouth to the esophagus and trachea

120

ovaries

female glands that produce sex hormones and ova (eggs)

121

pancreas

a flat, solid organ that lies below the liver and the stomach; is a major source of digestive enzyme and produces the hormone insulin

122

parasympathetic nervous system

a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system, involved in control of involuntary functions, immediately large by the vagus nerve through the chemical acetylcholine.

123

palatial bones

the bones that lie between the temporal and occipital region of the cranium

124

patella

the kneecap

125

pathophysiology

the study of how normal physiology processes affected by disease

126

perfusion

the circulation of oxygenated blood within and Oregon or tissue in adequate amounts to meet the cells current needs

127

peripheral nervous system pns

the part of the nervous system that consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves. these may be sensory nerves, motor nerves, or connecting nerves

128

peristalsis

the wave-like contraction of smooth muscles by which the ureters or other typical organs Propel their contents

129

plasma

a sticky, yellow fluid that carries the blood cells and nutrients and transport cells waste material to organs of exertion

130

platelets

tiny, this shape elements that are much smaller than the cells; they are essentially in the initial formation of a blood clot, the mechanism that stops bleeding

131

Pleura

the serious membrane covering the lungs and lining the thorax, completely enclosing a potential space known as a pleural space

132

pleural space

the potential space between the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura;

133

pons

an organ that lies between the midbrain and above the medulla and contains numerous important nerve fiber, including those for Sleep, respiration, and the medullary respiration Center

134

posterior tibial artery

the artery just behind the medial malleolus; supplies blood to the foot

135

prostate glands

a small gland that surrounds the male urethra where emergence from the urinary bladder; it secretes a fluid that is part of the ejaculatory fluid

136

pubic symphysis

a hard, bony, and cartilaginous prominence found at the midline and the lowermost portion of abdomin with a two halves of the pelvic ring are joined by cartilage at a joint with minimal motion

137

pubis

one of three bones that fuse to form the pelvic ring

138

pulmonary artery

the major artery leading from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs; carries oxygen poor blood

139

pulmonary circulation (lesser circulation)

the flow of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary arteries and all the branches in capillaries in the lungs and back to the left atrium through the venules and pulmonary veins

140

pulmonary veins

the four veins that return oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart

141

pulse

the way of of pressure created as a heart contracts and forces Blood Out the left ventricle and into the major arteries

142

radial artery

major artery in the forearm; palpable at the wrist on the thumb side

143

radius

the bone on the thumb side of the forearm

144

rectum

the lowermost end of the colon

145

red blood cells (erythrocytes)

so they carry oxygen to the body's tissue

146

renal pelvis

hey Khan shaped area that collects urine from the kidneys and funnels it through the ureter into the bladder

147

residual volume

the air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration

148

respiration

the inhaling and exhaling of air; exchanges carbon dioxide from fresh air

149

respiration compromise

the inability of the body to move gas effectively

150

respiratory system

all the structures of the body that contribute to the process of breathing, consisting of the upper and lower Airways and their component parts

151

reticular activity system

located in the upper brain stem. responsible for maintenance of Consciousness, specifically ones level of arousal

152

retroperitoneal

behind the abdominal cavity

153

sacroiliac joint

the connection point between the pelvis and the vertebral column

154

sacrum

one of three bones that make up the pelvic ring. Sacrum and two pelvic bones

155

sagittal (lateral) plane

an imaginary line where the body is divided into left and right parts

156

salivary glands

the glands that produce saliva to keep the mouth and pharynx moist

157

scalp

the thick skin covering the cranium, which usually Bears hair

158

scapula

shoulder blade

159

sebaceous glands

glands that produce an oily substance called 7, which discharged along the shaft of the hairs

160

semen

fluid ejaculation from the penis and containing sperm

161

seminal vessels

storage sacks for sperm and seminal fluid, which empty into the urethra at the prostate

162

sensory nerve

the nerves that carry Sensational such as touch, taste, smell, heat, cold, and pain from the body to the central nervous system

163

shock

an abnormal State associated with inadequate oxygen and nutrient delivery to the cells of the body, also known as hyperperfusion

164

shoulder girdle

the proximal portion of the upper extremities, made up with a clavicle, the scapula, and the humerus

165

skeletal muscle

muscle that is attached to bones and usually crosses at least one joint ; straited, or voluntary, muscle

166

skeleton

the framework that gives the body its recognizable form; also designed to allow motion of the volume protect the vital organs.

167

small intestine

the portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum, consisting of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum

168

smooth muscle

involuntary muscle

169

somatic nervous system

the part of the nervous system that regulates activities over which there is voluntary control

170

sphincters

muscles arranged in circles that are able to decrease the diameter of tubes. examples found within the rectum, bladder, blood vessels

171

sphygmomanomrter

device used to measure blood pressure

172

spinal cord

extension of the brain, composed of virtually all the nerves carrying messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Lies inside and it protects Itself by the spinal canal

173

sternum

the breastbone

174

stratum corneum layer

the outmost or dead layer of the skin

175

stroke volume SV

volume of blood pumped forward with each ventricle contraction

176

subconscious tissue

tissues, largely fat, that lies directly under the dermis and serves as an insulator of the body

177

superior vena cava

one of the two largest veins in the body; carries blood from the upper extremities, head, neck and chest Into the Heart

178

sweat glands

glands that secrete sweat, located in the dermal layer of the skin

179

symphysis

a type of joint that has grown together to form a very stable connection

180

synovial fluid

the smallest amount of liquid within a joint used as lubrication

181

synovial membrane

the lining of a joint that secretes synovial fluid into the joint space

182

systemic circulation

portion of the circulatory system outside of the heart and lungs

183

systemic vascular resistance svr

the resistance that blood must overcome to be able to move within the blood vessels

184

systole

the contraction, or. Of contraction, of the heart, especially that of The ventricle

185

temporal bones

lateral Bones on each side of the cranium. the temples

186

Tendance

fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

187

testicle

male genital gland that contain specialized cells that produce hormones and sperm

188

thoracic cage

chest or rib cage

189

thoracic spine

the 12 vertebrae that lie between the cervical vertebrae and the lumber vertebrae. One pair of the ribs attached to each of these vertebrae

190

thorax

the chest cavity that contains the heart, lung, stopping us, and great vessels

191

thyroid cartilage (Adams apple)

a firm prominence of cartilage that forms upper part of the larynx

192

tibia

the shin bone. larger of the two bones of the lower leg

193

tidal volume

amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one relaxed breath. About 500 mL for an adult

194

typographic Anatomy

superficial landmarks of the body that serves as guides to the structures that lie beneath them

195

trachea

the windpipe. main trunk for air passing to and from lungs

196

transverse (axial) plane

an imaginary line where the body is divided into top and bottom parts

197

triceps

the muscle in the back of the upper arm

198

Tunica Media

midline and thickest layer of tissue of hey blood vessel wall, composed of elastic tissue and smooth muscle cells that allow the vessel to expand or contract in response to changes in blood pressure and tissue

199

ulna

inner bone of the forearm on the side opposite the thumb

200

ureter

small, Hollow tube that carries urine from the kidneys to bladder

201

urethra

Canal that conveys urine from the bladder to outside the body

202

urinary bladder

Sac behind the pubic symphysis made of smooth muscle that collects and stores urine

203

urinary system

organs that control discharge of certain waste material filtered from blood and excreted as urine

204

vagina

a muscular, distensible tube that connects the uterus with the vulva. also called birth canal

205

Vasa deferentia

the spermatic duct of the testicles. also called vas deferens

206

ventilation

the movement of air between the lungs and the environment

207

ventricle

one of two lower chambers of the heart

208

vertebrae

the 33 bones that make up the spinal column

209

voluntary muscle

muscle that is under direct voluntary control of the brain and can be contracted or relaxed at will

210

VQ ratio

measurements that examines how much gas is being moved effectively and how much blood is floater on the alveoli where gas exchange occurs. Perfusion

211

white blood cells

blood cells I have a role in the body's immune defense mechanism against infection. Also called Leukocytes

212

Xiphoid process

the narrow, cartilaginous lower of the sternum

213

Zygomas

the quarter angular bones of the cheek, articulated with the frontal bone, the mix Ilya, the zygomatic process of the temporal bone, and the great wings of the sphenoid bone