Flashcards in the impact of disturbances on tudor governments Deck (36)
how did henry vii use advisors
he consulted his most trusted household servants and ocasionally hosted a meeting of nobles in a 'great council'
- he only relied upon his closest advisors and men whom had been with him in exile:
EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND - NORTH
EARL OF OXFORD - EAST ANGLIA
EARL OF DERBY - SOUTH LANCASHIRE
DUKE OF BEDFORD - WELSH BORDERS.
how did henry viii use advisors
he left principal ministers in charge: 1520's this was wolsey, 1530s this was cromwell - he insisted he was kept informed
how did mary and elizabeth use advisers
they used secretaries and councilors.
who advised edward
the duke of somerset - this was problematic when rebellion broke out in 1549, as he did not regularly consult / ask advice of the privy council
what conflicting advice did mary receive during wyatts revolt
some suggested using imperial troops, others suggested leaving the city. STAYING IN LONDON SAVED HER THRONE.
how did henry vii gather info about lovell and stafford
he used agents to follow stafford and lovell - as a result, the staffords were arrested, and lovell was forced to flee.
who did elizabeth rely on to gather information
WALSINGHAM THE SPY - he employed over 50 agents at home and overseas - their success is a main reason for the decline in rebellions post 1570s.
when did information gathering not work (under henry viii)
POG - Henry ordered the Earl of Derby to arrest the leaders of the pog but he was unaware that the earl was no where near the rebels, meaning he could not carry out his orders / the pilgrimage went on for longer than anticipated.
who were the first people expected to deal with unrest
JPs and sherriffs. if this failed, the local nobility in the area was then expected to restore order.
how was the nobility effective in the amicable grant uprising
when the protesters threatened to march on london, the duke of norfolk / suffolk took command and successfully entered the unrest - it was in the interests of the nobles to deal with the unrest as it granted them concessions.
how was the nobility ineffective in the western uprising
the jp's were not strong enough to contain the rebel forces, therefore SIR PETER CAREW was sent, however his attitude made the rebellion worse, turning a local protest into a serious rebellion.
how was the nobility ineffective in kett's rebellion
the gentry and sheriff's failed to deal with the rebellion so the lord lieutenant was sent - he did not have enough troops and faced defeat.
how did elizabeth deal with essex revolt before it got out of hand
the elizabethan pc knew he was planning something dramatic and therefore undertook defensive action: city gates were closed, the earl of nottingham was told to draw up sufficient cannon to blast a hole in essex's house if he resisted arrest.
how did henry vii deal with serious disturbances
on his own. he appointed SIR GILES DAUBERY to deal with SIMNEL, CORNISH, WARBECK, however on each occasion, the king himself was present on the field.
how did elizabeth deal with irish unrest
she preferred using diplomacy over military action .
how did elizabeth deal with TYRONE O'NEILL?
diplomatic measures - recognised him as 'captain of tyrone', however this was ineffective as he continued to disregard the laws. IT TOOK 8 YEARS FOR ELIZABETH TO ACTUALLY DO SOMETHING AND TURN TO A MILITARY SOLUTION.
what was the gvt's main weapon?
PROPAGANDA - their claim of legitimacy and 'ruling by God'. anyone fighting against them deemed a 'sinner' or 'traitor'
- Great chain of being
- CRANMER - 'Hominy of obedience'
-CHURCH - threatened excommunication
why did the gvt want to avoid violent confrontations?
because expensive outcomes were uncertain.
how did the government use pardons?
to weaken morale and reduce numbers of rebel forces. REBELS AT STOKE, BLACKHEATH, CLYST ST. MARY AND DUSSINDALE were offered pardons on the eve of battle if they surrendered.
how was buying time a success for the amicable grant revolt
on 11th may suffolk and norfolk heard a deputation of 60 rebels at bury st edmonds, and warned them of the heinous consequences of rebellion. they succeded in persuading them to submit before anyone died
how was buying time ineffective for somerset and the western rebellion
somerset urged the rebels to resist and offered a free pardon if they did and threatened punishment if they didnt. a proclamation issued on the 11th july threatened to forfeit their land and property but it had no effect.
why were polemics ineffective
polemics were a strong, often controversial written attack, which had a limited impact because few rebels could read and held a lack of interest in lessons on morality.
how did the government use pardons
they were issued to rebels when they returned home, and if they didn't, they threatened serious punishment. pardons often exempted the ringleaders whom often faced execution
what pre emptive measures did henry take with simnel
- the clergy read a papal ball, which excommunicated rebels
- the real earl of warwick was paraded to help prove that simnel was an imposter
POSITIVE EFFECT - many rebels surrendered rather than risk eternal damnation.
what pre emptive measures did henry take with warbeck
henry went to warwickshire to inform potential troublemakers there was no future in supporting warbeck
-15 counties were investigated for involvement
what pre emptive measures did elizabeth take
in the summer of 1569 she heard rumours that nobles were plotting to bring down william cecil, secure the succession of mary stuart and marry mary to the duke of northumberland. THEREFORE, NORFOLK WAS DENIED PERMISSION TO MARRY. NORFOLK WAS LODGED IN THE TOWER, MARY WAS MOVED 30 MILES SOUTH
why did governments sometimes delay raising troops?
they were too expensive, and if they delayed paying the troops they then became a bigger threat than the rebels themselves.
raising troops was a 'last resort' of such, particularly in Ireland due to communications and fears it would increase hostility.
when were there troop shortages
-wyatt 1554 - norfolk was old and uninspiring - many royal forces deserted to join wyatts cause, additionally principal landowners in the county were unable to raise many men. AS A RESULT ELIZABETH USED PATRIOTISM TO GATHER SUPPORT. LONDONERS RALLIED BEHIND HER - WHEN WYATT TRIED TO ENTER LONDON, AROUND 40 MEN DIED. WYATT SURRENDERED AS HE WAS UNWILLING TO SACRIFICE ANY MORE SUPPORTERS.
why did warbeck back away from confrontation
warbeck arrived at taunton in 1497 with 6000 men . the earl of devon waited at exeter - rather than risk battle, warbeck fled at the approach of daubeny's army.
why did wyatt back away from confrontation
he had witnessed a number of friends killed at ludgate, therefore causing him to surrender to the earl of pembroke's troops rather than risk a full blooded battle in the streets of london.
what was henry vii's favoured method of dispensing justice
henry dispensed justice accordingly - his favoured method was imposing bonds and recognisances. for example in feb 1487, a large sussex contigent including the mayor of winchelsea were bound for sums of up to £1000 for involvement in simnels rebellion
what happened to most of the ringleaders behind YORKSHIRE and CORNISH rebellion
they were round up and tried and executed, however rebels were allowed to return home, awaiting the king's judgement
what happened to the people accused of linconshire, pog and bigod's rebellion
the accused were tried by comissions without a jury and verdict. anyone whom was involved in recent troubles or knew anything had to take an oath disclosing the name of rebel captains.
how did elizabeth treat all rebels
all rebels were treated harshly under elizabeth;
- northumberland (leader of NE) was executed, 450 rebels hung
-oxfordshire - 5 ringleaders executed
what was mary's favoured method of dealing with the rebels
'burning of heretics' was out of character - on the whole, she aimed to win over people and therefore did not impose harsh treatment of rebel forces . only a few of northumberlands rebels faced execution
wyatt - 71 executed, 600 pardoned
- mary did not execute elizabeth, despite her having rumoured links to the rebellion / instead she was put under house arrest.