Flashcards in The knee- problems Deck (22):
Femoral shaft injuries causes
In healthy adults and children are usually the result of a high velocity trauma
In young children may be a sign of abuse
In the elderly may be due to osteoporosis
Signs of femoral shaft fractures
Tense swollen thigh,
Blood loss in closed femoral shaft fracture 1-1.5 litres.
Rarely there may be complications with nearby neuromuscular bundles
Causes of distal femoral fractures
Young patients- high energy sporting injury
Elderly patients- osteoporosis a fall from standing
Complications of distal femoral fractures
The popliteal artery and need to asses neurovascular state of limb
Tibial plateau fractures types
Can be unicondylar or bicondykar.
Most rare unicondylar lateral tibial condyle
Causes of tibial plateau fractures
Virus or vagus load- abnormal medial or lateral flexion load. These fractures will be associated with meniscal tears
Most common type of knee injury.
Occur due to a sudden twisting motion of the knee
.symptoms- intermittent localised pain, knee clicking or catching or locking. Swelling may occur. There may be restricted movement of the joint
Collateral ligament injury causes
Sporting injury- like football- a blow to one side of the knee
Medial angulation of distal segment
Lateral angulation of the distal segment
Which collayteral ligament is damaged more often?
Medial collateral ligament
What is the unhappy triad?
Anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and medial meniscus damage.
Often caused by strong force to lateral aspect of the knee.
Causes of anterior cruciate ligament damage
Quick deceleration, hyperextension or rotational injury.
Causes of posterior cruciate ligament
When knee is flexed a lot of pressure is applied to the upper tibia, or a fall in football on a flexed knee
How can anterior and posterior cruciate ligament injuries be detected?
Anterior and posterior drawer tests
ACL can also be detected by Lachmans test
How many bursae are there in the knee?
Prepatella bursitis- prepatella bursa has a thin synovial lining, does not communicate with joint space.
Normally presents as knee pain and swelling
Infrapatella bursitis caused by repeated micro trauma caused by activities involving kneeling.
Knee effusion- causes swellling in suprapatella bursa, it is normally a sign of significant pathology in the knee joint.
Osgood Schlatters Disease
Inflammation of patellar ligament - occurs in teenagers who do running and jumping sports it is bilateral in 20-30% of cases.
Osteoarthritis of the knee symptoms
Knee pain- caused by bending kneeling or squatting
Stiffness- worse after prolonged rest e.g. sleeping
Some patients felell that their knee is giving away
Effusion may develop