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Flashcards in The knee- problems Deck (22):
1

Femoral shaft injuries causes

In healthy adults and children are usually the result of a high velocity trauma
In young children may be a sign of abuse
In the elderly may be due to osteoporosis

2

Signs of femoral shaft fractures

Tense swollen thigh,
Blood loss in closed femoral shaft fracture 1-1.5 litres.
Rarely there may be complications with nearby neuromuscular bundles

3

Causes of distal femoral fractures

Young patients- high energy sporting injury
Elderly patients- osteoporosis a fall from standing

4

Complications of distal femoral fractures

The popliteal artery and need to asses neurovascular state of limb

5

Tibial plateau fractures types

Can be unicondylar or bicondykar.
Most rare unicondylar lateral tibial condyle

6

Causes of tibial plateau fractures

Virus or vagus load- abnormal medial or lateral flexion load. These fractures will be associated with meniscal tears

7

Meniscal injuries

Most common type of knee injury.
Occur due to a sudden twisting motion of the knee
.symptoms- intermittent localised pain, knee clicking or catching or locking. Swelling may occur. There may be restricted movement of the joint

8

Collateral ligament injury causes

Sporting injury- like football- a blow to one side of the knee

9

varus deformation

Medial angulation of distal segment

10

Valgus deformation

Lateral angulation of the distal segment

11

Which collayteral ligament is damaged more often?

Medial collateral ligament

12

What is the unhappy triad?

Anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and medial meniscus damage.
Often caused by strong force to lateral aspect of the knee.

13

Causes of anterior cruciate ligament damage

Quick deceleration, hyperextension or rotational injury.

14

Causes of posterior cruciate ligament

When knee is flexed a lot of pressure is applied to the upper tibia, or a fall in football on a flexed knee

15

How can anterior and posterior cruciate ligament injuries be detected?

Anterior and posterior drawer tests
ACL can also be detected by Lachmans test

16

How many bursae are there in the knee?

11

17

Housemaids knee

Prepatella bursitis- prepatella bursa has a thin synovial lining, does not communicate with joint space.
Normally presents as knee pain and swelling

18

Clergyman’s knee

Infrapatella bursitis caused by repeated micro trauma caused by activities involving kneeling.

19

Suprapatella bursitis

Knee effusion- causes swellling in suprapatella bursa, it is normally a sign of significant pathology in the knee joint.

20

Osgood Schlatters Disease

Inflammation of patellar ligament - occurs in teenagers who do running and jumping sports it is bilateral in 20-30% of cases.

21

Osteoarthritis of the knee symptoms

Knee pain- caused by bending kneeling or squatting
Stiffness- worse after prolonged rest e.g. sleeping
Swelling
Some patients felell that their knee is giving away
Crepitus
Effusion may develop

22

Septic arthritis of the knee

Invasion of joint space by microorganisms.
knee is most common joint affected by osteoarthritis
The most common pathogen is staph aureus