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Flashcards in The Larynx Deck (34):
1

What structures does the larynx connect?

The inferior oropharynx with the trachea

2

Where does the larynx extend from and to?

Laryngeal inlet to the level of the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage

3

Function of the larynx?

Guard the air passages, especially during swallowing, where it serves as a sphincter of the lower resp tract

4

What is the laryngeal skeleton made up of?

Hyoid bone
9 cartilages

5

Name the cartilages of the larynx

3 unpaired
-epiglottis
-thyroid
-cricoid

Paired
-arytenoid cartilage
-corniculate cartilage
-cuneiform cartilage

6

What is the epiglottis attached to?

Back of the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage by ligaments

7

What level is the upper border of the thyroid cartilage at?

C4

8

What important anatomical landmarks are there at the superior border of the thyroid cartilage?

Bifurcation of the common carotid artery
Level of the carotid body

9

What shape is the cricoid cartilage said to be?

Signet ring shaped

10

What vertebral level does the cricoid cartilage mark?

C6

11

What articulates with the two articular facets on either side of the cricoid cartilage?

Inferior horn of thyroid cartilage
Arytenoid cartilage

12

What shape is the arytenoid cartilage said to be?

Pyramid

13

What is on the anterior and lateral sides of the arytenoid cartilage?

Anterior - vocal process
Lateral - muscular process

14

Which cartilage is important for vocal cord ligament?

Arytenoid cartilage

15

Where does the cricovocal ligament/membrane run between?

Deep surface of the angle of the thyroid cartilage to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage

16

What are the divisions of the internal larynx?
Features of each division?

Supraglottic space
-laryngeal inlet
-vestibular folds (false vocal cords)

Glottis
-vocal cords
-rima glottis (space between vocal cords)

Subglottic space

17

Which groups can the laryngeal muscles be divided into?

Extrinsic and intrinsic muscles

18

What is the function of the extrinsic muscles of the larynx?

Move the entire larynx
-infrahyoid muscles depress it
-suprahyoid muscles elevate it

19

Function of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?

Open and close the glottis by acting on the vocal folds
Help to close the laryngeal inlet by acting on the aryepiglottic folds

20

Innervation of the intrinsic muscles?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Except for the cricothyroid muscle supplied by the external laryngeal nerve

21

What are the layers of the vocal cords?

Stratified squamous epithelium
Vocal ligament
Vocalis muscle

22

What are the implications of a lack of submucosa of the vocal cords?

Vocal cords look pearly white on laryngoscopy
No oedema during infections
Delayed spread of carcinoma of vocal cords

23

Which muscles carry out abduction of the vocal cords?

Posterior cricoarytenoid

24

Which muscles carry out adduction of the vocal cords?

Lateral cricoarytenoid
Cricothyroid

25

The branches of which cranial nerve is the larynx innervated by?

Branches of the vagus nerve

26

Function of the superior laryngeal nerve in the larynx?

-internal laryngeal nerve - sensory to the larynx above the true vocal cord
-external laryngeal nerve - motor to cricothyroid muscle

27

Function of the recurrent laryngeal nerve?

Sensory to below the true vocal cord

28

Which vessels do the right and left recurrent laryngeal nerves loop around?

Right - descends to T2 and loops around subclavian artery

Left - descends to T4 and loops around the arch of the aorta

29

What does the recurrent laryngeal nerve run upwards in?

Tracheo-oesophageal groove

30

Causes of hoarse voice?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy
-aortic aneurysm
-apical lung tumour
-bronchial carcinoma (only on left as right doesn't go low enough)

Laryngitis (viral or streptococcal)
GORD
Benign nodules on vocal cords

31

Blood supply to the larynx?

External carotid artery - superior thyroid artery - superior laryngeal artery

Subclavian artery - inferior thyroid artery - inferior laryngeal artery

32

Venous drainage of the larynx?

Superior laryngeal vein - superior thyroid vein - internal jugular
Inferior laryngeal vein - inferior thyroid vein - left brachiocephalic vein

33

What can an upper airway/laryngeal obstruction be caused by?

Laryngeal oedema
-infection - acute epiglottitis, croup, anaphylaxis
Inhalation of a foreign body
Tumours

34

Where is a cricothyroidotomy performed?

In an emergency situation
Opened through the cricothyroid membrane