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Flashcards in The Nasal Cavity Deck (38):
1

What are the regions of the nasal cavity?

Vestibule, olfactory region, respiratory region

2

What are the nasal conchae and how many are there?

Curved shelves of bone which project out the lateral walls

Three -inferior -middle -superior

 

3

What are the pathways that the nasal conchae create called and how many are there and there location?

Inferior meatus: between the inferior concha and the floor of the nasal cavity

Middle meatus: between the inferior and middle conchae

Superior meatus: between middle and superior conchae

Spheno-ethmoidal recess: lies superiorly and posteriorly to the superior concha

4

Function of the nasal conchae?

Increase the surface area of the nasal cavity

Make airflow turbulent so it stays longer in the nasal cavity so it can be humidified

5

Which paranasal sinuses open up into the middle meatus and what is the opening marked by?

Frontal

Maxillary

Anterior ethmoidal

Semilunar hiatus - a crescent shaped groove on the lateral walls of NC

6

What do the middle ethmoidal sinuses drain into and what is it?

Ethmoidal bulla

A bulge in the lateral wall formed by the sinus

7

Where does the posterior ethmoidal sinus drain into?

Level of the superior meatus

8

Where does the sphenoid sinus drain into?

Posterior roof

9

Where does the nasolacrimal duct drain into?

The inferior meatus

10

Where does the Eustachian tube open into?

Nasopharynx at the level of the inferior meatus

11

Which bone is the cribriform plate a part of and what is does it allow?

Ethmoid bone

Forms a portion of the nasal cavity

Contains small perforations allowing fibres of the olfactory nerve to enter and exit

 

12

Where is the sphenopalatine foramen located and what does it allow?

At the level of the superior meatus

Allows communication between the nasal cavity and the pterygopalatine fossa

Sphenopalatine artery, nasopalatine nerve and superior nasal nerves pass through here

13

What is the incisive canal?

A pathway between the nasal cavity and the incisive fossa of the oral cavity.

Transmits the nasopalatine nerve and the greater palatine artery

14

Why is it useful that the nose has a very rich blood supply?

Effectively change humidity and temperature of inspired air

15

Where does the nose receive blood from?

Internal carotid branches

-anterior ethmoidal artery

-posterior ethmoidal artery

These are branches of the ophthalmic artery, descend into the nasal cavity through the cribriform plate

External carotid branches -sphenopalatine artery -greater palatine artery -superior labial artery -lateral nasal arteries

16

Where do the veins of the nose drain into?

Follow the arteries

Into the pterygoid plexus, facial vein or cavernous sinus

17

In some individuals, a few nasal veins can join into which sinus and be a pathway for infection to spread into the cranial cavity?

The saggital sinus - a dural venous sinus

18

How can infection of the auditory tube diminish hearing?

Get swelling of the mucous linings, blocking the tube

19

Which nerves are for special sensory innervation of the nose?

Olfactory nerves from the olfactory bulb, which lies on the superior surface of the cribriform plate, above the nasal cavity

20

Which nerves supply general sensory innervation to the nose?

Nasopalatine nerve (branch of maxillary) and nasociliary nerve (branch of ophthalmic) - septum and lateral walls

Trigeminal nerve - external skin

21

How can a fracture of the cribriform plate occur?

As a result of nose trauma

Either fractured directly by the trauma or fragments of the ethmoid bone

22

What can a fracture of the cribriform plate lead to?

The plate can penetrate the meningeal linings of the brain, causing leakage of cerebrospinal-spinal fluid Increases the risk of meningitis, encephalitis and brain abscesses because the brain is exposed to the outside environment

Olfactory bulb which lies on it can be irreversibly damaged leading to anosmia

23

Where does the nasal cavity extend from and to?

Vestibule to nasopharynx

24

Which bones make up the bony part of the nasal skeleton?

Nasal bones

Maxillae frontal processes

Frontal bone (nasal part and nasal spine)

25

Name the cartilgaes that make up the cartilaginous part of the nose

2 lateral cartilages

2 alar

1 septal

26

What are the parts of the nasal septum?

Anterior portion - cartilaginous

Middle portion - perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone

Posterior portion - vomer

27

Which bones is the hard palate made up of?

Palatine and maxillary bones

28

Complication of a fracture to the nasal cavity?

Septal haematoma

29

Structure of the olfactory cells?

Axonal process of the cells pass through the cribriform plate and penetrate the meninges before entering the olfactory bulb

30

Where is the area where nosebleeds usually occur? Why?

Kiesselbach's area

Rich in capillaries where all the arteries supplying the septum anastamose

31

Which artery is the cause of posterior bleeds?

Sphenopalatine artery

32

Causes of rhinitis?

Viral

  • Adenovirus
  • Rhinovirus
  • Respiratory syncytial virus

Allergic

Nasal polyps

33

What can nasal polyps lead to?

Where are they normally found?

Snoring/obstructive sleep apnoea

Close to the ostiomeatal complex of the nasopharynx

34

What are the different types of sinusitis?

Acute: 7-30 days

Sub-acute: 4-12 weeks

Chronic: >90 days

35

Causes of sinusitis?

Viral with secondary infection

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Haemophillus influenzae

36

What complications can an ethmoidal sinus air cell infection cause?

May break through the medial wall of the orbit

Close proximitiy to the optic canal which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery causing visual disorders

37

Why can sinusitis be perceived as toothache?

Superior alveolar nerve branches of the maxillary nerve (V2) supply both the maxillary teeth and the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinuses

38