Flashcards in The multi-store model (MSM) Deck (20):
What is the multi-store model of memory?
An explanation of memory that sees information flowing through a series of storage systems
Who created the MSM?
Atkinson and Shiffrin
What analogy does the MSM use?
The computer analogy: Encoding, storage and retrieval
What is the sensory register, what is it's duration and size, and how is it coded?
A short-duration store holding small amounts of information in raw, unprocessed forms with different stores for different senses. The capacity of the store is very large
What research can be used to illustrate the coding of the sensory register?
Crowder: The SR only retains information in the iconic store for a few milliseconds but for two to three seconds in the echoic store
Name the different sensory stores in the sensory register?
Echoic, iconic, haptic, gustatory and olfactory
Explain what short-term memory is, including the coding, duration and size
A temporary store (lasting about 30 seconds) that holds between five and nine items that predominantly codes information acoustically
What prominent piece of research can be used as evidence of short-term memory coding?
Baddeley: Used word lists of semantically similar and acoustically similar words and found in short-term memory acoustically similar words were only recalled 10% of the time, while semantically similar words were recalled between 60-80% accurately
What prominent piece of research can be used as evidence of long-term memory encoding?
Baddeley: Used word lists of semantically similar and acoustically similar words and found that in long-term memory only 55% of semantically similar words were recalled compared to 70-85% for acoustically similar
Explain what long-term memory is, including the coding, duration and size
A permanent store lasting an individual's lifetime that holds limitless amounts of information that is predominantly coded semantically
What type of amnesia did HM have?
Anterograde amnesia - being unable to encode new long-term memories, but his short-term memories were fine (supporting separate memory stores)
What type of amnesia did Clive Wearing have and what caused it?
He could no longer transfer short-term memories into long-term memory, but his procedural memory was intact; caused by a virus that caused brain damage
Why did HM get amnesia?
A surgery was performed to cure his epilepsy that involved removing brain tissue such as the hippocampus
What does the rehearsal loop do?
Maintains information in the STM long enough for it to be retained and made into a LTM
What did Sperling do?
Demonstrated the very brief duration of SM using a grid of letters and numbers and exposing them to the eye for 50 milliseconds. When asked to recall the whole thing, recall was poorer than being asked to recall one line
What did Miller say about short-term memory?
It can hold seven pieces of information plus or minus two, but this can be significantly increased by chunking
What did Bahrick study/find?
Investigated the duration of LTM by asking people
of various ages to put names to faces from their high school yearbook. Those who had graduated less than 15 years before were about 90% accurate in identifying names and faces. This declined to about 80% for names and 70% for faces after 48 years
What does the multi-store model not explain?
How memory works
Who discovered the serial position effect and what does this mean?
Cunitz and Glanzer
We remember first words and last words and forget the ones in the middle, indicating short and long-term memory