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Flashcards in Types of long-term memory Deck (15):

What is the main sub-division of long-term memory?

Explicit and implicit


What does explicit LTM mean?

Memories that are only recalled when consciously thought about and are easy to put into words


What does implicit LTM mean?

Memories don't require conscious thought to be recalled and are difficult to put into words


What is unique about LTM?

It is incredibly robust and can
survive periods of unconsciousness,
anaesthesia or comas


What other sub-divisions are there in the LTM?

Declarative and procedural


What is procedural memory?

This is the memory for skills and
procedures, such as holding a pen. These memories are implicit, and are involved in language as well as movement, such as being able to use correct grammar and syntax without consciously thinking about it


Where is procedural memory located in the brain?

Neocortex brain areas such as the primary motor cortex, cerebellum and prefrontal cortex


What two types of memory does declarative memory divide into?

Episodic and semantic


What is episodic memory?

Time-stamped memories of events occurring in an individual's life, such as a birthday party


Where is episodic memory located in the brain?

Initial coding occurs in the prefrontal cortex, with consolidation and storage of memories occurring in the neocortex, with different parts (senses) of the memory being encoded in different areas of the brain and are connected in the hippocampus


What is semantic memory?

Factual information such as names of objects and meanings of words and other concept-based knowledge


Where is semantic memory located in the brain?

There is disagreement over which areas are associated with semantic memory, some evidence suggests the involvement of the hippocampus and others the use of several brain areas. Coding is mainly associated with the frontal and temporal lobes


Which type of memories are easier to store?



Which type of memory is more resistant to decay?



What were the findings of Maguire et al.?

Using an fMRI scan, found that episodic memories use a wide range of brain areas including the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus and retrosplenial cortex while semantic memories used the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus brain areas