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Flashcards in The neural basis of behaviour Deck (25)
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1

What is the purpose of the nervous system?

Mechanism to translate information from the environment into behaviour

2

Describe begging behaviour in herring gull chicks.

Baby gull pecks tip of parents bill
Adult gull regurgitates half digested fish
Baby consumes

3

Who studied why baby herring gull begging behaviour?

Tinbergen & Perdeck 1950

4

What were the four conditions in Tinbergen & Perdeck 1950 study on baby herring gulls?

a 2D cardboard cutout gull head with a red dot
a 3D model of a gulls bill with a red dot
a 3D model of a gulls head without the red dot
a 3D red stick with dots on it

5

What were the results of Tinbergen & Perdeck 1950 study on baby herring gulls?

With a 2D cardboard cutout gull head with a red dot the baby gulls pecked quite a lot
With a 3D model of a gulls bill with a red dot they pecked quite a lot but not as frequently as the 2D cardboard cutout
With a 3D model of a gulls head without the red dot, the frequency of pecking decreased a lot
When presented with a 3D red stick with dots on it the most pecking behavior was observed

6

What type of behaviour is begging in herring gull chicks?

An innate behaviour

7

Who studied the Greylag goose?

Tinbergen 1951

8

What do Greylag geese do when their egg becomes displaced from the nest?

The adult rolls it back using their beak in a continuous movement

9

What did Tinbergen 1951 find in his experiments with Greylag geese?

If the egg becomes displaced from the nest, adult rolls it back using their beak in a continuous movement
If the egg is removed during this behaviour, the greylag goose continues to complete the movement
Greylag geese will do this with any stimuli that resembles an egg

10

What is an innate behaviour?

A behaviour pattern that appears in a fully functional way from the first time it is performed

11

What is a simple cue?

Sign stimulus (a stimulus the animal has seen, smelt or heard)

12

What is Instinct?

Fixed action pattern (FAP)

13

How do bats locate food and navigate at night?

Bats use ultrasonic calls – listen for weak ultrasonic echoes reflected back from objects on their flight path

14

Who studied bats?

Griffin (1958)

15

Describe Griffin's (1958) study on captive bats in a dark room?

The bats could navigate around obstacles & catch insects without any issues
After this was observed, he added some ultrasonic frequency noise into the room, immediately the bats started colliding with the obstacles in the room, dropped to the floor and remained there
The addition of low frequency sound had no effect – stimuli did not mask the high frequency echoes

16

Describe moth ears.

The moth’s ears are located on either side of their thorax
Each ear has a thin tympanic membrane
Two neurons are attached to the tympanic membrane called the A1 and A2 receptor
The purpose of the A1 receptor is to detect cues that are associated with echolocation in bats
The receptors are stretch receptors and are stimulated when the tympanic membrane becomes stretched
This occurs when an intense sound pressure causes membrane to vibrate
Stimulation of stretch sensitive channels generates an action potential
End result – output to muscles causing them to contract

17

Describe how moths locate bats in space.

A1 receptors are sensitive to pulses of ultrasound up to 30m away
The rate of firing of the A1 receptors is proportional to loudness of sound
When a bat is to one side of the moth, the A1 receptor in the side closer to the predator fires sooner and more often than the shielded A1 receptor in the other ear.
When a bat is above the moth activity in the A1 receptors fluctuates in synchrony with the moth's wingbeats.
When a bat is directly behind the moth, both A1 receptors fire at the same rate and time.
A2 cells only fire when the bat is extremely close, which is when the moth will exhibit turning and diving behaviour
By diving and turning it makes the moth more difficult to identify its location

18

What do bees use UV radiation for?

The location of food

19

What do male sulphur butterflies use radiation UV for?

They have patches on their wings that fluoresce to signal females

20

What do male three spined sticklebacks use UV radiation for?

They have large amounts of carotenoids in their body to attract a mate (females view them in the UV spectrum)

21

Describe male digger bee behaviour.

When ready, Ivy digger bees, Centris pallida, will attempt to mate with almost anything that is approximately the size of a female
They are not particularly discriminating
Touch receptors signal to commence a series of muscle commands
When the male digger bee comes into contact with a female digger bee it should mate successfully

22

How do Bristle beetles exploit the Fixed action pattern (FAP) of digger bees?

The male Ivy bee will attempt to mate with a cluster of blister beetle larvae
During this process the male becomes covered in larvae
When the male bee then mates with a female bee, the larvae are transferred to female bee
The females then return to nest
The nest provides resources available for larvae to thrive

23

What is the Command centre hypothesis?

There is too much sensory information to deal with
The nervous system organized to avoid maladaptive conflicts between competing stimuli via ‘command centers’ in the brain

24

What are the similar features of prey?

low lying
rectangular
slow moving
small

25

What are the similar features of predators?

large
upright
fast moving