The Oral Cavity and Pharynx Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Oral Cavity and Pharynx Deck (107)
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1

What structures are considered the upper airway?

Nose
Mouth
Pharynx
Hypopharynx
Larynx

2

What are the two openings to the human airway?

The nose and the mouth

3

What structures are considered the lower airway?

Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles (terminal and respiratory)
Alveoli

4

What is the primary function of the nose?

Warms and humidifies gases

5

What structure is the primary pathway for normal breathing?

The nose, unless there is obstructions, polyps, or upper respiratory infection

6

What opening to the airway has more resistance?

The Nose, almost two times that of mouth breathing

7

What structure does the nose and mouth form?

They are separated anteriorly and joined posteriorly to form the pharynx

8

When does mouth breathing occur?

When high flow rates are required

9

What are the three compartments of the pharynx?

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Hypopharynx

10

Where is the pharynx located?

Extends from posterior aspect of nose to the level of the cricoid cartilage

11

What structures are present in the nasopharynx?

Nasal SeptumTurbinates/ConchaAdenoids

12

Where is the nasopharynx located?

Anterior to C1, bound superiorly by base of skull and inferiorly by soft palate

13

Where is the oropharynx located?

Lies at C2-C3, bound superiorly by soft palate and inferiorly by epiglottis

14

What is the major source of oropharyngeal obstructions?

The tongue due to decreased genioglossus muscle tone

15

Where is the hypopharynx located?

C5-C6, bound by superior border of the epiglottis and inferior border of the cricoid cartilage

16

What is the purpose of the upper esophageal sphincter?

Acts as a barrier to regurgitation in the conscious patient, closed when swallowing and open when breathing

17

What is the only complete ring of cartilage in the adult trachea?

Cricoid Cartilage

18

Lymphoid tissue ring in the pharynx that is at high risk for bleeding, especially with nasal intubation?

Waldeyer's Tonsillar Ring

19

What makes up Waldeyer's tonsillar ring?

Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
Palatine tonsils
Lingual tonsils

20

Where does the larynx typically lie in infants and children?

C2-C4 and descends to C4-C5 by the age of 5

21

What is the purpose of the larynx?

It serves as an organ of phonation and as a valve to protect the lower airways

22

Where is the larynx located?

Extends from epiglottis to lower level of cricoid cartilage and sits at the junction of the airway and the esophagus

23

How is the trachea protected from aspiration?

The epiglottis will fold over when swallowing and the vocal cords will spasm close if irritated

24

How are the tracheal rings typically structured?

Incomplete posteriorly and complete anteriorly, with the exception of the cricoid cartilage

25

What are the components of the cartilaginous skeleton of the larynx?

Ligaments, muscles, cartilages and one bone

26

What is the name of the one bone included in the cartilaginous skeleton of the larynx?

Hyoid bone

27

Name the nine cartilages that make up the larynx?

Thyroid (one)
Cricoid (one)
Epiglottic (one)
Corniculate (pair)
Arytenoid (pair)
Cuneiform (pair)

28

Where is the epiglottis located?

Sits at base of tongue and separates hypopharynx from the larynx and hangs over the laryngeal opening

29

What is important to remember about the epiglottis prior to performing DVL?

Very vascular and can be traumatized, swelling incredibly

30

What are the most commonly seen cartilages on laryngoscopy?

Arytenoids, pyramidal and posterior to the cords