Flashcards in The Oral Cavity and Pharynx Deck (107)
What structures are considered the upper airway?
What are the two openings to the human airway?
The nose and the mouth
What structures are considered the lower airway?
Bronchioles (terminal and respiratory)
What is the primary function of the nose?
Warms and humidifies gases
What structure is the primary pathway for normal breathing?
The nose, unless there is obstructions, polyps, or upper respiratory infection
What opening to the airway has more resistance?
The Nose, almost two times that of mouth breathing
What structure does the nose and mouth form?
They are separated anteriorly and joined posteriorly to form the pharynx
When does mouth breathing occur?
When high flow rates are required
What are the three compartments of the pharynx?
Where is the pharynx located?
Extends from posterior aspect of nose to the level of the cricoid cartilage
What structures are present in the nasopharynx?
Where is the nasopharynx located?
Anterior to C1, bound superiorly by base of skull and inferiorly by soft palate
Where is the oropharynx located?
Lies at C2-C3, bound superiorly by soft palate and inferiorly by epiglottis
What is the major source of oropharyngeal obstructions?
The tongue due to decreased genioglossus muscle tone
Where is the hypopharynx located?
C5-C6, bound by superior border of the epiglottis and inferior border of the cricoid cartilage
What is the purpose of the upper esophageal sphincter?
Acts as a barrier to regurgitation in the conscious patient, closed when swallowing and open when breathing
What is the only complete ring of cartilage in the adult trachea?
Lymphoid tissue ring in the pharynx that is at high risk for bleeding, especially with nasal intubation?
Waldeyer's Tonsillar Ring
What makes up Waldeyer's tonsillar ring?
Pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
Where does the larynx typically lie in infants and children?
C2-C4 and descends to C4-C5 by the age of 5
What is the purpose of the larynx?
It serves as an organ of phonation and as a valve to protect the lower airways
Where is the larynx located?
Extends from epiglottis to lower level of cricoid cartilage and sits at the junction of the airway and the esophagus
How is the trachea protected from aspiration?
The epiglottis will fold over when swallowing and the vocal cords will spasm close if irritated
How are the tracheal rings typically structured?
Incomplete posteriorly and complete anteriorly, with the exception of the cricoid cartilage
What are the components of the cartilaginous skeleton of the larynx?
Ligaments, muscles, cartilages and one bone
What is the name of the one bone included in the cartilaginous skeleton of the larynx?
Name the nine cartilages that make up the larynx?
Where is the epiglottis located?
Sits at base of tongue and separates hypopharynx from the larynx and hangs over the laryngeal opening
What is important to remember about the epiglottis prior to performing DVL?
Very vascular and can be traumatized, swelling incredibly