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Flashcards in The Skin Deck (29)
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1

What is the largest organ in the body?

The skin

2

What are the three layers of the skin?

Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous tissue

3

What is the outermost layer of the epidermis and what is its function?

The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the epidermis and serves as a major physical barrier

4

What is the deepest layer of the epidermis?

The basal cell layer

5

How long does the process of maturation, keratinization, and shedding take?

Approximately 4 weeks.

6

What is the layer beneath the epidermis?

The dermis which is the dense connective tissue stroma forming the bulk of the skin

7

Which layer of the skin is supplied with both sensory and ANS innervation?

The dermis

8

What is the role of the ANS in the dermis?

Supply the arrector pili muscles, blood vessels, and sweat glands.

9

What is the role of the subcutaneous layer of the skin?

It is a thermal regulator, as well as a protection for the more superficial skin layers from bone prominences

10

What structures are considered the skin appendages?

The sweat glands, hair follicles, and nails

11

What controls the release of sweat from the eccrine glands?

The SNS

12

What is the major trigger for the apocrine glands?

Stress

13

What is the purpose of the sebaceous glands?

They secrete sebum, which is discharged directly into the lumen of the hair follicle, where it lubricates the hair shaft and spreads to the skin surface.

14

What is the purpose of nails?

They protect the tips of the fingers and toes against trauma

15

Why does chemotherapy causes hair loss, along with anemia, nausea, and vomiting?

The cells at this end of the follicle, along with those of the bone marrow and gut epithelium, are the most rapidly growing dividing cells in the human body

16

What causes goose bumps?

Contraction of the arrector pili muscles

17

What skin condition is caused by extravasated blood into the skin?

Petechiae or purpura

18

What do the ABCDE of skin assessment stand for?

A symmetry of shape
B order irregularity
C olor variation
D iameter larger than 6 mm
E volving

19

What are Beau's lines and what causes them to develop?

Transverse grooves or depressions parallel to the lunula. Any severe, systemic illness that disrupts nail growth can produce Beau's lines

20

What are Mees' bands?

White transverse line or band results from poisoning or an acute systemic illness.

21

What are Lindsey's nails?

The proximal portion of the nail bed is whitish, whereas the distal part is red or pink.

22

What disease processes cause Lindsey's nails to develop?

Chronic renal disease and azotemia are the commonly associated conditions with this type of nail abnormality

23

Why is it important to assess tissue turgor?

It provides a mechanism for estimating the patient's general state of hydration

24

What is the normal growth of a nail?

Approximately 1mm per week

25

What is the term used to describe white nail beds to within 1-2mm of the distal border of the nail?

Terry's nails

26

What pathology are splinter hemorrhages typically associated with?

Subacute bacterial endocarditis

27

What pathology are spoon nails most commonly associated with?

Iron deficiency anemia

28

What term is used to describe the angle between the nail base and finger?

Lovibond's angle

29

At what point is Lovibonds angle considered clubbing?

Lovibond's angle greatly exceeds 180 degrees