Flashcards in The pharynx and palate Deck (22):
What is the pharynx?
Fibromuscular tube which extends from base of skull to oesophagus. Has a common entrance for respiratory and alimentary tracts
What are the 5 layers of the pharyngeal wall?
Mucosa, submucosa, fibrous CT (pharyngobasilar fascia muscularis w/ inner longitudinal and outer circular), thin areolar layer
What is found in the posterior and lateral walls of the pharynx?
Paired superior, middle and inferior constrictor muscles that overlap eachother. Forms the outer circular layer of pharynx
What forms the inner longitudinal layer of the pharynx?
Stylopharyngeus, palatopharyngeus, salpingopharyngeus
What innervates the constrictors of the pharynx?
What cranial nerves are found between the internal carotid artery and the internal jugular vein in the neck?
CNIX, X, XI, XII
What structures does the glossopharngeal nerve supply in the neck?
After passing through the pharyngeal plexus it supplies the tonsils and pharyngeal mucosa
What does the vagus supply in the neck?
Pharyngeal constrictor muscles, carotid body and carotid sinus
What is the hard palate composed of?
Fused palatal processes of the maxilla and the palatine bones
How do you test CN IX (glossopharyngeal)?
Touch spatula against posterior wall of the pharynx on either side
This will elicit the gag reflex if the palate is tensed
Name the 5 palatal muscles
Tensor and levator palatini, palatoglossus, palatopharyngeas and musculus uvulae.
Where do the tensor and levator palatini muscles lie?
Above the soft palate
Tensor palatini spreads out horizontally in the soft palate to form an aponeurosis for other palatine muscle attachment
Function of the palatine canals?
To transmit palatine nerves (branches of maxillary CNV2) from pterygopalatine fossa to hard palate
Tensor palatini is innervated by what?
Medial pterygopalatine nerve (branch of mandibular)
Levator palatini is innervated by what?
Pharyngeal branch of vagus (CNX)
What innervates most of the palatine muscles?
Pharyngeal branch of vagus (apart from tensor palatini)
What is the sensory innervation of the palate?
Maxillary nerve (except tiny part glossopharyngeal)
What is the innervation of the glands of the palate?
Parasympathetic fibres that run with the maxillary palatine nerves, come from pterygopalatine ganglion
Name the 4 tonsils
Pharyngeal, lingual and two palatine
Why is the paratonsillar vein important?
Passes from soft palate across tonsillar capsule, may cause haemorrhage in a tonsillectomy
What is the lymphatic drainage of the tonsils?
Through superior constrictor to jugulodigastric node