Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (23):
What travels in transverse foramen and where are they found?
Found in cervical vertebrae only
Contain vertebral artery and vein and sympathetic nerve plexus
How are thoracic vertebrae different?
Have articular facets in the sides of the body for articulation of the ribs
Name the different vertebral groups and number of vertebrae in each
When does the sacrum fuse?
When 20-25years old
What is lordosis?
Type of curvature in the lumbar region of the spine
Increases in pregnancy due to extra weight of uterus
Name the 4 ligaments present in the vertebral column
Posterior longitudinal ligament
Anterior longitudinal ligament
What is the nucleus pulposus?
Gelatinous mucoid substance, found in centre of intervertebral discs
What is a prolapsed disc?
When part of the nucleus pulposus is forced thorugh a rupture in the annulus fibrosus (L4-L% or L5-S1 most common)
What does the atlas articulate with?
C1 vertebra so articulates with occipital condyles of skull superiorly
Inferiorly with dens of axis
What is the vertebrae prominens?
C7, spinous process can be felt
Where does a lubar puncture usually take place?
What is scoliosis & likely causes
Lateral deviation of spine
Muscle weakness, vertebral defects, compensation for hip problem?
What is kyphosis and likely causes
Increased sagittal curvature in thoracic vertebrae
Muscle weakness, changes in body/disc
What is the ligamentum nuchae?
Connects skull to spines of cervical vertebrae
Thickening of inter and supraspinous ligament
What muscles are involved in extension of the spine?
Trapezius, deltoid, lat dorsi, rhomboids, gluteus maximus
Where do all the muscles of the posterior neck converge?
At the atlas and axis
Name the muscles of the posterior neck
Longus colli, scalenes (anterior, medius, posterior)
For counterclockwise movement of spine (w/ pelvis fixed) what muscles are used?
Right external oblique and L internal oblique
How does the quadratus lumborum aid in the breathing?
Pulls down 12th rib so aids in inspiration
What is the dens also known as?
The odontoid process
What are the characteristics of the axis?
The dens (odontoid process) and bifid spinous process
What limits excessive rotation of the head?
The alar ligament
Attached to dens and lateral foramen magnum