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Flashcards in The Research Process Deck (18)
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Give an example of BAD science:

- MMR hoax by Andrew Wakefield + others 1998
- Try to link MMR vaccination to autism + bowel problems
- Personal financial gains


What are the different ways of obtaining knowledge?

§ Authority figures
§ Introspection + intuition
§ Experience
§ The scientific method


○ Give an example for why gaining knowledge from authority figures may not be the best idea?

§ Gwyneth Paltrow + "goop" = fined for unproved health claims


○ What biases are we subjected to making introspection and intuition a bad source of knowledge?

§ Confirmation bias
§ The availability heuristic
§ Illusion pattern-detection - Pareidolia


○ What is the confirmation bias?

§ Finding evidence to support a belief rather than disprove it


○ What is the availability heuristic?

§ Judgements are influenced by information that is readily available eg sharks, car vs plane crash


○ What is the illusion pattern-detection?

§ We are prone to seeing pattern in randomness
§ Pareidolia - virgin Mary grilled cheese sandwich


○ What are the key elements of the scientific method?

§ Objective measurements
§ Openness to confirmation
§ Refutation or reinterpretation
§ Self-correction of errors


○ What is the typical procedure of the scientific method?

§ Gen hyp based on existing theory/ observation
§ Gen testable predictions based on hyp
§ Collect + interpret data
§ Relate findings to theory and gen more hyp


○ What are the characteristics of the scientific method?

§ Defined by its approach - rational, systematic, objective etc
§ Results are open to scrutiny by others - falsifiable + reproduceable


What characteristics DO NOT define the scientific method?

§ Not defined by the subject (eg psychology is not a science lmao no, it is a science)
§ Not defined by the use of experimental method
§ Not defined by obtaining quantitative data


○ What are the differences between science and pseudo-science?

§ True science =
□ Produce claims which are testable
□ Acknowledge all findings whether they are supportive or not "Skinner"
§ Pseudo-science =
□ Selective use of evidence


○ What are the limitations of the scientific method?

§ Restricted to testable questions eg GOD


○ What is a Theory?

§ An evidence-based conceptual framework
§ That tries to explain a set of facts = observations,
§ Which can be used to make testable predictions


○ What is a hypothesis?

§ A proposed explanation that comes from a theory


○ What is a prediction?

§ A specific, testable prediction that comes from a hypothesis


○ What is data?

§ "facts" that a theory attempts to explain, and can be used to test it


○ What are the 2 existing theory on Maths Anxiety?

§ Cognitive Deficit theory: poor numerical + spatial skills = poor performance = higher anxiety
§ Debilitating anxiety theory: high anxiety about maths = poor performance due to avoidance/ distraction