Flashcards in The Research Process Deck (18)
Give an example of BAD science:
- MMR hoax by Andrew Wakefield + others 1998
- Try to link MMR vaccination to autism + bowel problems
- Personal financial gains
What are the different ways of obtaining knowledge?
§ Authority figures
§ Introspection + intuition
§ The scientific method
○ Give an example for why gaining knowledge from authority figures may not be the best idea?
§ Gwyneth Paltrow + "goop" = fined for unproved health claims
○ What biases are we subjected to making introspection and intuition a bad source of knowledge?
§ Confirmation bias
§ The availability heuristic
§ Illusion pattern-detection - Pareidolia
○ What is the confirmation bias?
§ Finding evidence to support a belief rather than disprove it
○ What is the availability heuristic?
§ Judgements are influenced by information that is readily available eg sharks, car vs plane crash
○ What is the illusion pattern-detection?
§ We are prone to seeing pattern in randomness
§ Pareidolia - virgin Mary grilled cheese sandwich
○ What are the key elements of the scientific method?
§ Objective measurements
§ Openness to confirmation
§ Refutation or reinterpretation
§ Self-correction of errors
○ What is the typical procedure of the scientific method?
§ Gen hyp based on existing theory/ observation
§ Gen testable predictions based on hyp
§ Collect + interpret data
§ Relate findings to theory and gen more hyp
○ What are the characteristics of the scientific method?
§ Defined by its approach - rational, systematic, objective etc
§ Results are open to scrutiny by others - falsifiable + reproduceable
What characteristics DO NOT define the scientific method?
§ Not defined by the subject (eg psychology is not a science lmao no, it is a science)
§ Not defined by the use of experimental method
§ Not defined by obtaining quantitative data
○ What are the differences between science and pseudo-science?
§ True science =
□ Produce claims which are testable
□ Acknowledge all findings whether they are supportive or not "Skinner"
§ Pseudo-science =
□ Selective use of evidence
○ What are the limitations of the scientific method?
§ Restricted to testable questions eg GOD
○ What is a Theory?
§ An evidence-based conceptual framework
§ That tries to explain a set of facts = observations,
§ Which can be used to make testable predictions
○ What is a hypothesis?
§ A proposed explanation that comes from a theory
○ What is a prediction?
§ A specific, testable prediction that comes from a hypothesis
○ What is data?
§ "facts" that a theory attempts to explain, and can be used to test it