Flashcards in The Rhine Deck (21)
Where is the Rhine?
It is the longest river in Europe.
It flows through 6 countries (Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, France and the Netherlands).
Describe industry on the Rhine.
1/5 of the world’s chemical production occurs in the Rhine River Basin,
6 industrial centres exist on the Rhine
Why was industry established on the Rhine?
Reason for development: cheap water transport keeps prices for raw materials low, removal of political restrictions, increased involvement in industrial activities of riverside countries and canalisation of parts of the Rhine
Briefly explain farming on the Rhine.
50% of the river basin is used for agriculture. It has fertile soils along mouth and banks
Describe the settlement and reason for developing settlement on the Rhine.
Around 15% is used for urban use
In the Netherlands flood-proof floating houses have been built (hollow concrete cube at the base for buoyancy and can withstand water level rises of 13ft) e.g. in Maasbommel
Reason for development: increase in worldwide population creating a high demand for housing for families and because of flooding (e.g. the 1995 floods)
What is the reason for developing water development on the Rhine and how is it used?
20 million people in the Rhine basin are supplied with water.
Reason for development: increase in population creating a high demand for more water and more use for leisure and hygiene.
Describe transportation and reason for developing transportation on the Rhine.
Yearly 40 million tonnes of cargo is transported by barge and ocean-vessels.
The Thames connects the port in Rotterdam of the Netherlands with the world’s largest inland port in Duisburg, Germany.
Reason for development: high navigability as boats can travel from Rhinefelden to Switzerland, Rhine water was diverted below Basel into a canal that rejoins the Rhine at Strasbourg.
Describe a conflict on the Rhine involving Farming.
Farming vs industry due to chemical spillages leaking into the river system (30 tons of pollutants were released into the Rhine in 1986)causing high mercury levels which would seep into agricultural land ruining crops and soil due to its toxic content. Resolution: Rhine Action Programme to increase safety regulations (50% of harmful substances were removed in 1995) which increases water quality and has less of an impact on crop yields and agriculture in general.
Describe a conflict on the Rhine involving transportation.
• Settlement vs transportation due to the canalisation of the river for improved shipping causing flooding and therefore damage to housing due to the reduced gradient increasing river velocity. Resolution: improved housing by raising the level of foundations above potential flood areas and pioneering of floating eco-homes by the Dutch (in Maasbommel) where a hollow concrete cube is built at the base for buoyancy and can withstand a 13ft water level rise.
How was the pollution in the Rhine described in the 80s?
In the ‘80s, it was described as dead from the pollution Germany inhabited it with, as a result Holland didn't appreciate the river flowing through as it didn't smell/look nice at all (lifeless)
Before the restoration of the Rhine what problems were caused by Industry?
In 1986 a fire broke out in a chemical factory polluting the water and turning it red
About 30 tons of chemicals was released into the river
High levels of mercury were travelling down river, to be released into the North Sea
Before the restoration of the Rhine what problems were caused by agriculture?
The river has a history of flooding regularly
The fertiliser on the fields dissolved into the river causing eutrophication.
Before the restoration of the Rhine what problems were caused by potash mining?
Due to potash mining salt dissolved into the water causing it become salty.
Before the restoration of the Rhine what problems were caused by transportation?
Chemicals are regularly transported down the river and there have been several recorded chemical spills, with non-degradable toxic products being put in the river
What was the aims of RAP?
RAP (Rhine Action Programme)
- Main noxious substances cut by 50% in 1995 compared with 1985
- Safety regulations tightened with industries based on Rhine
- Weirs (barriers) must allow fish to travel upstream
- Animals and plants usually found near the Rhine should return
What were the aims of the ICPR.
ICPR (International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine) founded in 1950
-Guarantee of using the Rhine for drinking water production
- Improvements of sediment quality (stop dredging)
- Overall flood protection
What was the aim of salmon 2000
Salmon 2000’, aim for the river to sustain life by 2000.
When was Salmon 2000 achieved?
‘Salmon 2000’ was achieved 3 years early; Rhine now supports life and is clean and safe.
How did the organisations clear the chemicals already in the Rhine?
The chemicals from industry and agriculture led to the mud at the river bed being contaminated and has to be dredged
When did the organisations want to achieve their tasks by?
By 2020, they want the river clean enough to swim in.