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Flashcards in The Solent Deck (11):
1

Where is the Solent?

Location: south coast of England, a coastal area between the Isle of Wight and Southampton (a strait that separates the Isle of Wight from the mainland of England)

2

What are the industrial activities in the Solent?

− A container facility is part of a deep water port and covers an area of over 200 acres. It has a frontage of 1350m and is next to the rail freight terminal which handles 25% of traffic
Reason for growth and development: its location is in the south-western area of Southampton and is on the coast of Southampton Water
− Exxon Mobil oil refinery is the largest refinery in the UK, covering an area over 3000 acres with a terminal frontage of 1500m. It handles 2000 ship movements a year and takes oil from all parts of the world, converting it into petrochemicals and fuels.
Reason for growth and development: the Solent has a varying width of between 1 and 4 miles which enables large amounts of ship movements
− Fawley chemical manufacturing plant produces 1 million tonnes of chemical products a year (the products being paints, adhesives and rubber for tyres). 80% of the products are exported by ship on the Solent
Reason for growth and development: the Solent has a varying width of between 1 and 4 miles which enables large amounts of ship movements

3

Describe the residential function in the Solent?

− The City of Southampton has a population of over 250000 and is the largest city in the south of England. It is ranked second out of 39 cities in terms of its growth (Good Growth Index 2013). It has a GDP per capita of £19,300 in 2006.
Reason for growth and development: due to the location of Southampton being in a coastal area many industries have been able to develop (such as the container facility, Exxon Mobil oil refinery, the Fawley chemical manufacturing plant and the Fawley power station) which has benefited the economy in conjunction with tourism.

4

Describe energy production on the Solent.

− Fawley power station is one of the largest oil-fired power stations in the UK
Reason for growth and development: water is used to create steam to turn a turbine that powers the generator and for cooling pumps

5

Describe recreation and leisure on the solent.

− Calshot Activities Centre is one of the largest outdoor activity centres in Britain and offers water-based activities such as windsurfing, canoeing, sailing, power-boating and water-skiing
Reason for growth and development: the area is relatively sheltered meaning all people with varying levels of skills in water-based activities can participate
− The Solent hosts the Cowes Week annual sailing charity event in which 8500 people compete and over 100,000 spectate the event making the event important in terms of economic benefits.
Reason for growth and development: the area is relatively sheltered meaning all people with varying levels of skills in water-based activities can participate

6

Describe conservation on the Solent.

Didben Bay is an area of mud flats and grassland, attracting thousands of wild birds (recognised as an important coastal environment by the RSPB). It incorporates a number of Site of Special Scientific Interest. A container port development was denied in 2004 after local opposition and a public enquiry.
− Keyhaven Nature Reserve is a 2000 acre area of mud flats and salt marsh which is internationally important for supporting migrating birds and plant and animal life.
− There is the Solent European Marine Site which is a protected area.
Reason for growth and development: mudflats and grassland permitting these sites

7

Conflicts and resolutions
Conservation and recreation and leisure.

The amount of water-based activities is extremely high and increasing in the Solent area (with 72 sailing clubs) which can interfere with the conservation areas (The Solent European Marine Site), especially if the areas are unknown to recreational users which can have adverse effects on the condition of the site. Resolution: the Royal Yachting Association (RYA) have produced guiding documents for sailing clubs for where recreation can take place to avoid conflicts.

8

Conflicts and resolutions
Conservation: port developers vs locals.

In 2004 a plan for a port development was executed, however it was denied after a public enquiry following local opposition. Resolution: to deny the development entirely.

9

Conflicts and resolutions
Industry, residential and conservation.

The Fawley power station and Exxon Mobil produced smoke plumes consisting of sulphur dioxide which can cause problems in terms of pollution for the conservation efforts and the people in the surrounding area from respiratory problems (Southampton). Resolution: Fawley was deemed an Air Quality Management Area in 2005. The Environment Agency is now working with the Exxon Mobil to reduce emissions for the benefit of wildlife in the Southampton Water area.

10

Conflicts and resolutions
Recreation and leisure and industry.

Container ships may interfere with water-based activities like sailing (there are 72 clubs in the Solent). Resolution: the Royal Yachting Association (RYA) have produced guiding documents for sailing clubs for where recreation can take place to avoid conflicts.

11

Conflicts and resolutions
Recreation and leisure.

Many water-based activities are competing with each other for space (such as Chichester harbour that has many racing clubs which can all be using the water at once in cruising boats with windsurfers also separately using the water). Resolution: clubs could display information about the different types of craft that operate within the same vicinity.