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Flashcards in The SMMA St Lucia Deck (19):

In comparison to another environment how much plant material do coral reefs produce?

Coral reefs produce 2500 m2 of plant material each year, more than tropical rainforest (2200) and therefore they are one of the mist dynamic ecosystems.


How are coral reefs formed?

Coral reefs are formed from colonies of small animals called polyps and one of the worlds most spectacular ecosystems.


What particular conditions are needed for the growth of reef building corals?

Warm sea temperatures, with an average water temperature above 18•C , and are most productive in stable water temperatures between 22 and 25•C.
High salt levels -close to the open sea
Clear water -sediment rich water will block the light and smother corals.


What percentage of the worlds fish species do Coral Reefs contain?

One third.
They have been called the gardens of the sea because of the variety of plant and animal life they contain.


Where are the conditions for cursor reefs usually found?

In shallow water either side of the equator, generally away from the equator.


Why are coral reefs important?

They provide the foundations for many islands.
The provide a barrier against storm waves.
They contain many rare species and chemicals, some of which have been used in the treatment if disease.
They support the fishing industry, providing food age income for local communities.
They are a major attraction for tourists - over 200 million tourists visit reefs each year.


Why are coral reefs under threat?

Pollution caused by sewage outfalls, agricultural and industrial run-off.
Damage by boats or drivers.
Collection of coral for souvenirs.
Increasing sediment being deposited in rivers.
Mining if the coral for building materials.
Global warming - increasing the frequency of damaging storms.


What is one of the fastest growing industries in the Caribbean?



What scheme was introduces to resolve conflicting demands and protect the most productive reefs on the west coast of St Lucia?

The Soufriere Marine Management Area (SMMA) was formed in 1994.


What method did the SMMA establish in St Lucia?

After consultation with local people, particular those in fishing and tourism sectors the SMMA agreement established five different zones within the area surrounding Soufriere.


What was the aim of zoning in St Lucia?

The aim of the zoning system is to cater for the wide range of users and encourage the economic and environmental sustainability of the area.


What are the five zones?

Marine Reserves
Fishing priority Areas
Yachting areas
Multiple Use Areas
Recreational Areas


In St Lucia describe marine reserves.

Allows fish stocks to regenerate and protects marine flora and fauna.
Access to the area is by permit and can be enjoyed by divers and snorkelers.


In St Lucia describe the zone Fishing Priority Areas.

Commercial fishing has precedence over all other activities.


In St Lucia describe the zone Yachting areas.

Yachting is not allowed in the SMMA. Moorings are provided in these areas only.


In St Lucia describe the zone Multiple Use areas

Fishing, diving, snorkelling and other legitimate uses are allowed.


In St Lucia describe the zone Recreational areas

Areas for Public recreation - sunbathing, swimming.


What activities does the SMMA involve?

The regulat monitoring of coral reefs and water quality.
Managed provision for different users.
Public infotion and education.
The promotion of appropriate development
The enforcement of rules and regualtions.


Has the SMMA in St Lucia been successful?

REcent surveys show that the reserve area has had an increase in commercial fish biomass and biodiversity asd well as a reduction in the level of damage to the reef by human activity.