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Flashcards in The Water Cycle Deck (21)
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1

What percentage of water on the planet is fresh (not salty)?

2.5%

2

What are the three global stocks of freshwater?

ice caps & glaciers, groundwater and surface water

3

In what form is most freshwater found?

solid- ice caps

4

Evaporation

When the sun heats the surface of a body of water, such as the ocean, its energy "breaks" bonds between water molecules, allowing some water to escape in the form of water vapor.

5

Sublimation

When the sun heats a glacier, ice field, or snow, water can move from a solid form in the snow or ice directly into the atmosphere as vapor.

6

Evapotranspiration

When the sun drives the movement of water from plants and soils

7

Condensation

When (warm) water vapor rises in the atmosphere, it cools and forms clouds. depending on atmospheric conditions, the condensed water molecules will collide and cling to one another.

8

Precipitation

When enough water molecules cling together and become heavy enough to leave a cloud, they fall to the ground as rain, snow or hail.

9

After water lands on the ground as a liquid, what are the three stocks that it could be stored in temporarily before it returns to the ocean?

Ice and snow, soil, freshwater lakes and streams

10

Infiltration

The process of water soaking into soils or ground water formation.

11

Runoff

When water is flowing off a landscape and collecting in rivers and lakes.

12

Is warm water (or air) more or less dense than cool water(or air)

warm water/air is less dense

13

properties of water

Water is a polar molecule, which makes it a universal solvent and capable of moving other elements and molecules. also allows molecules to stick together-form drops of water.

14

What factors drive ocean currents?

energy from the sun, temperature and salinity gradients, atmospheric conditions, the spin of the planet and gravitational forces of the moon.

15

Thermohaline current

Moves water around the entire planet and cycles it back from the surface to the deep ocean and back. Water evaporates at the equator b/c of heat which makes the water colder and saltier so it sinks quickly near greenland

16

Watershed

area of land that drains into a single point.

--a nested areas of land that increase in area as small streams join to become small rivers, to large rivers, to a single river, to the ocean

17

Would a high mountains stream or lowland river have a higher temperature?

lowland river. the water in high mountains streams is often shaded, fast moving and from snowmelt.

18

Would a high Mt stream or lowland river have a higher level of nutrients?

A lowland river because it has had more time to collect nutrients from plants and animals etc.

19

would a high MT. stream or lowland river have a higher amount of dissolved oxygen?

High mt stream because the water is moving quickly/over rocks which helps to aerate the water

20

What would the flow, nutrient, temperature and dissolved oxygen characteristics be like at the end of a large river? Ex) Mississippi to Gulf of Mexico

Flow, temperature and nutrient content would be highest and dissolved oxygen would be low

21

What could hinder the thermohaline current?

if ice melts and adds freshwater it could slow or stop the current