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Flashcards in Theme 1 Deck (79):
0

What are the 4 parts of a city?

CBD, inner city, suburbs, rural urban fringe

1

Mention a few urban issues that are common in wealthy countries

A shortage of good quality housing
Run down CBDs
Traffic congestion and pollution
Ethnic segregation

2

Name 3 ways that housing shortages are being solved

Urban renewal schemes (government encourage investment in new housing, services, employment and derelict areas e.g. Liverpool docklands)
New towns (e.g. Milton Keynes)
Relocation incentives (encouraging people who don't need to be living in urban areas to live by the sea/in the countryside)

3

How can CBDs be revitalised?

Section areas off for pedestrians
Better public transport links and car parks
Making public areas look more attractive
E.g. London docklands

4

What does the cost of living tend to be like in the CBD?

High

5

What does the cost of living tend to be like in the inner city?

Low

6

What does the cost of living tend to be like in the inner suburbs?

Medium

7

What does the cost of living tend to be like in the outer suburbs?

High/low

8

What is the housing type usually like in the CBD?

Apartments

9

What is housing usually like in the inner suburbs?

Semi detached and detached

10

Name three different housing tenures

Owner occupied
Council rented
Privately rented

11

Name two boroughs in London

Tower Hamlets
Havering

12

What is the capital of the UK?

London

13

In general what is the quality of life like in tower hamlets?

Low

14

General what is the quality of life like in havering?

High

15

Why is quality of life generally lower in tower hamlets?

Run down terraced housing
Little garden space
Tower blocks
High crime rate
High pressure on services

16

What is a positive thing about living in tower hamlets?

Interesting and diverse culture
Walking distance to the CBD
Access to a variety of pubs, markets, music and restaurants etc.

17

Why is the quality of life general higher in havering?

Detached and semi detached housing
Gardens and driveways
High employment
Less congestion an pollution
Access to the M25
Less pressure on services
Low crime rate

18

What is a disadvantage of living in havering?

Less diverse
Further from CBD

19

Name and locate a service other than retailing

Mosques in Barcelona

20

Where do many immigrants from Muslim nations go to in Barcelona?

El Ravel

21

Why do immigrants move to El Ravel?

Accommodation is often cheaper as lower quality
Easier to socialise if with people from similar backgrounds
Shops selling Muslim films, clothes and Halal meat
Mosques are available for worship

22

The wealth of the people living in Barcelona has an impact on the location of services, describe these

Mosques are clustered close to Muslim nations whereas services required from people who are more wealthy such as sports centres are more spread out due to people's access to cars and public transport

23

What are low order/convenience goods?

Goods that you need regularly

24

What are high order/comparison goods?

Goods which people need less frequent and are more likely to travel further for

25

Name 2 things that increased car use impacts the environment

Air pollution which damages health
More road accidents due to traffic jams and congestion

26

List 4 solutions to reducing traffic and it's impacts on the environment

Improving public transport
Increasing car parking charges
Bus priority lanes (speeding up the bus services will encourage people to use them)
Pedestrianisation

27

Why does ethnical segregation occur?

People prefer to live close to people with similar backgrounds, religion and who speak the same language
People live near services important to their culture e.g. Places of worship

28

How can you decrease ethnical segregation?

Providing interpreters at places like hospitals
Make services suitable for different cultures
Improving communication in the community e.g. Leaders of different ethnic communities when making decisions

29

Define urbanisation

The movement of an increasing proportion of the worlds population to live in urban areas

30

Is urbanisation occurring quicker in LEDC's or MEDC's

LEDC's

31

Name 3 things that causes urbanisation

Rural-urban migration
Good health care
High birth rate

32

What are the effects and management of air pollution?

Can lead to acid rain
Health problems
Some pollutants destroy the ozone layer which protect us from the suns rays
Set air quality standards for industries

33

What are the effects and management of water pollution?

Kills aquatic animals
Spread diseases e.g. Typhoid
Sewage treatment plants and laws forcing factories to remove pollutants from waste water

34

When people move into an area what is it called?

Immigration

35

When people move out of an area what is it called?

Emigration

36

What is a push factor?

Things about a persons place of origin that make them decide to move

37

What is a pull factor?

Things about a persons destination that attracts them

40

What're the negative impacts on the country immigrants come from?

Labour shortage
Skills shortage
Ageing population

41

What're the negative impacts on the country receiving immigrants?

High competition for jobs
Increased pressure on services and overcrowding
Not all the money is spent in that country but sent back to origin country

42

What is forced migration?

When people have no choice to move e.g. Natural disasters, lack of resources, war, government schemes

43

What is voluntary migration?

When people choose to move e.g. To improve their standard of living and quality of life

44

What is counter urbanisation?

The process where people move away from major cities to smaller settlements like villages

45

What are squatter settlements?

Illegal settlements built often on the outskirts of the city by people who can't afford proper housing

46

What is quality of living like in a slum/favela/shanty town?

Houses are badly built and overcrowding, lacking basic services, can be dangerous however some have a strong sense of community

47

Name and explain two schemes which can be used to improve squatter settlements

Self help schemes- the government supply the material and the local people work together to build better homes, money saved from labour can be used to provide basic services
Local authority schemes- the government pay to improve the temporary accommodation e.g. The Favela-Bairro project in Rio

48

Name a place where urban to rural migration is occurring

Catinga to Rio de Janeiro

49

List some push factors in a rural area

Disease such as Chagas' disease
Lack of medical services and schools
Mainly agricultural which can be badly paid and hard work

50

List some pull factors of an urban area

Higher employment rates
Better access to services
More entertainment

51

What're the problems in Rio De Janeiro?

Overcrowding 6 million people
Not enough housing
High crime
Traffic and pollution
Informal work sector reducing tax paid to the government

52

What're some solutions in Rio?

Self help schemes in Favela Rocinha
Local authority Favela Bairro project
The new town of Barra

53

Name some improvements that the Favela Bairro project includes

Social- daycare centres, adult classes to improve adult literacy, services to help people affected by addiction
Economic- training schemes to help people find jobs, people can apply to legally own their properties
Environmental- widening streets to allow access of emergency services, services such as clean water, electricity and weekly rubbish collection

54

What're the 5 reasons for counter urbanisation?

Growth in transport and communications (people no longer need to live close to work)
Government incentives
New business parks so people can find work away from city centre
Pollution and traffic congestion
For retirement

55

Define urban sprawl

As the population of an urban area increases the urban area gets bigger

56

What is a greenbelt?

A ring if land around an urban area where development is restricted

57

Urban sprawl leads to...

The growth of conurbations

58

Why was London docklands regenerated?

Containerisation (decreased need for dockers 20000 jobs lost)
The Thames became too shallow and narrow for larger newer ships
The area became virtually derelict (60%)

59

How did the attract new businesses to London Docklands area?

The national government made it an enterprise zone

60

How did they improve the London Docklands area?

22000 houses created
10000 refurbished council houses
Post 16 college and campus for University
750 hectares of derelict land reclaimed and trees being planted
Docklands light railway
City airport

61

Name a corporation involved in the regeneration of London Docklands area

The London docklands development corporation (LDDC)

62

What were the negative effects of the regeneration of the London docklands?

Local people struggled to compete for new jobs
Locals struggle to afford new expensive housing
Noise and air pollution during construction
Slight break down of community spirit as new people arrived

63

Name some ways of making a city more sustainable

Schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it
Conserving natural environments
Building on brownfield sites
Building carbon neutral homes
Increasing public transport

64

Define a honeypot site

A place that attracts lots of tourists

65

What is a national park?

An area protected by law to preserve areas of natural beauty

66

Name the highest mountain in England which is in the Lake District

Scafell pike

67

How many visitors a year does the Lake District receive?

12 million

68

Name some groups that might disagree in the Lake District

Local residents
Farmers
Tourists
Conservationists

69

Solutions to the problems in the Lake District?

Paving damaged footpaths
Improve public trasport
Promotion of new sites and walks
Zoning of land to reduce conflict
Education to raise awareness of how to look after the countryside

70

Name a small town in the Lake District

Ambleside

71

What problems does tourism bring to Ambleside?

Traffic congestion
Second homes
Too many people
Seasonal tourism
Conflict of use of lake Windermere
Disruption to farmers

72

Name some solutions of problems in Ambleside

One way system
Increase council tax on second homes
Paving main walks
Encouraging cut price packages in the winter
Divide the lake into zones
Raise awareness of leaving gates open

77

What're the positive impacts on the country receiving immigrants?

Increased labour force
Migrant workers pay taxes

78

What're the positive impacts on the country where people leave?

Reduced demand on services
Money is sent back to the source country by emigrants

79

Name an area where the distribution of retail services are changing in one large urban area

Newcastle

80

List a few advantages and disadvantages for retailing in Newcastle CBD

Adv- good transport (train, roads, river Tyne)
Uni close by provides customers and workforce
Disadv- high competition, expensive land, overcrowded, pollution, no room to expand, lack of parking

81

Describe some features of an out of town shopping centre such as the Metro centre in Gateshead

Developed since the 1980s
Turns shopping into a day long activity with 300 shops and 40 eating places

82

Name some advantages of the metro centre in Gateshead being located where it is

It was an enterprise zone
Relatively cheap land with room for expansion
1.3 millions people live within a 30 minute drive
Many forms of transport available

83

Why did Newcastle CBD decline t begin with?

Increased car ownership, population and disposable income meant it became over crowded and so the public found it difficult to find cheap car parking. The CBD became a less admirable place for retailers as the metrocentre became popular.

84

How has Newcastles CBD recently managed to attract shoppers back?

It offers a more interesting shopping experience
More car parking available and park and ride schemes also a better metro service
Pedestrianisation