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Flashcards in Theme 2 Deck (107):
0

What're the 5 main reasons for climate varying in the UK?

Latitude
Winds
Distance from the sea
Pressure
Altitude

1

What does a synoptic chart show?

Atmospheric pressure conditions

2

What is atmospheric pressure measured in and what is it shown as on a synoptic chart?

Millibars
Isobars

3

As you go towards the centre of the circular shape on a synoptic chart showing low pressure will the numbers decrease or increase?

Decrease

4

As you go towards the centre of the circular shape on a synoptic chart showing high pressure will the numbers decrease or increase?

Increase

5

Draw the symbols for a warm front, cold front and occluded front?

Warm- line with red semi circles
Cold- line with blue triangles
Occluded- line with both red semi circles and blue triangles

6

Name the three types of rainfall

Relief, convectional and frontal

7

Describe relief rainfall

Warm wet winds reach a mountain barrier and have to rise over it.
The air cools and condenses forming clouds and precipitation starts.
The drier air starts to descend.
This drier area is know as the rain shadow.

8

Describe convectional rainfall

Sun heats the ground and warm air rises
As it rises it cools and cumulonimbus clouds are formed by strong thermal up currents which produce low pressure

9

Describe frontal rainfall

A low is formed where warm and cold air meet which causes condensation and frontal rain

10

Describe how a depression forms

Warm moist air is less dense than cold dry air and therefore rises above when they meet
Condensation occurs
Rising air causes low pressure at the earths surface so winds blow into the depression in a spiral

11

What weather conditions do anticyclones bring?

Winter: clear bright skies, low night temperatures
Summer: dry hot weather

13

Name a period of extreme weather

European heatwave 2003

14

What are the causes, effects and responses of the European heat wave?

Causes: anticyclone/area of high pressure over Europe
Effects:38.5 degrees
2,000 heat related deaths, road surfaces melted, increased sales in fans, ice creams and tourism, melting glaciers in the alps, forest fires, 10% of Portugals forests destroyed
Responses: advances warning, hose pipe bans and France asked EU for money

15

Name some impacts of extreme weather

Floods damage houses and businesses, water use restricted in droughts, droughts cause crop failures, flooding causes drowning, heat exhaustion, floods block transport systems
Increased rainfall increases water supplies and higher crop yields, warmer climate means farmers can grow crops which they could before

16

How is a hurricane formed?

Over sea water, more than 27 degrees
Warm moist air rises and condenses releasing huge amounts of energy
They move west because of easterly winds near the equator
They spin anticlockwise and the centre if the storm is called the eye

17

Name a case study for hurricanes

Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, USA, August 23rd 2005, category 4

18

What were the causes of hurricane Katrina?

29-33 degrees over the Gulf of Mexico
Extreme low pressure as a result of warm updrafts
High wind
Development of cumulonimbus clouds leading to high rainfall

19

What were the effects of hurricane Katrina?

1,300 death till-drowning/exposure
Flood damage (80% of New Orleans under water)
Communications down
Fires form gas pipes, pylons and people using candles

20

What were the responses to hurricane Katrina?

Evacuation if thousands before+after
Ambulances and helicopters to help
Army and aid agencies supply food and clothes
Police to prevent looting
Areas made to shelters (Louisiana super dome)
Flood water pumped out

21

Define a producer

An organism that uses sunlight energy to produce food

22

Define a consumer

An organism that gets its energy by eat other organisms

23

Define a decomposer

An organism that gets its energy by breaking down dead material

24

Describe a temperate deciduous forest

Found mainly in Europe
Have four distinct seasons
There's rainfall all year round
Soil is feel and fertile because of a thick layer of leaf fall
Undergrowth-shrub layer-tree layer

25

Describe a tropical rainforest

The Amazon, Central Africa, SE Asia
Hot wet climate
Soil isn't that fertile as heavy rain washes nutrients away
Shrub layer- under canopy- canopy-emergents

26

What sort of climate so tropical rainforests grow in?

Equatorial

27

What do large buttress roots do?

Support the trees

28

What're the 5 main causes of deforestation?

Farming
Mineral extraction
Road building
Population pressure
Commercial logging

29

What're the economic and political impacts of deforestation?

Creates jobs
Makes lots if money
Pressure on governments to stop deforestation

30

What're the environmental and social impacts of deforestation?

Reduced biodiversity
Soil erosion
Water pollution
Global warming
More jobs
Livelihoods ruined when animals and plants that they rely on are destroyed
Native tribes forced to move
Conflict over land use

31

Give an example of a tropical rainforest facing deforestation

Amazon rainforest

32

What're the responses to deforestation?

Sustainable development e.g. Ecotourism
Logging regulations
Protect certain areas
Replant action scheme

33

How can tropical rainforests be sustainably developed?

Selective logging
Replanting
Reducing demand for hardwood
Education
Ecotourism
Reducing debt in poor countries with tropical rainforests
Protection

34

Name an area suffering from desertification

Sahel region, Africa

35

Describe the reasons that desertification

Population growth->more fuel, food and housing needed->tress are cut down and grassland is over grazed........
Climate change->less rain and more evapotranspiration.............
soil become bare->soil is eroded by wind and water-> land becomes infertile->no plants grow-> land becomes desert

36

What're the solutions to desertification?

Plant trees
Magic stones
Appropriate technology

37

What're the impacts of desertification?

Death
Lack of wood
Migrants move
Reduced quality of life
Soil erosion
Dry rivers
Reduced biodiversity
Sand storms

38

What is the hydrological cycle?

Continuous movement if a constant amount of water between sea, land and atmosphere

39

How does water go through the hydrological cycle?

Evaporation of sea water forms clouds
Rainwater sinks into the ground (vertical transfer)
Water moves back to the sea (horizontal transfer)
Some water is also stored on the surface and eventually returns to the atmosphere

40

What is the course of the river long profile like?

Upper: steep gradient, narrow and shallow sides, vertical erosion
Lower: gentle gradient, almost flat sides, very wide and deep, lateral erosion

41

What is a drainage basin?

A land area drained by a river

42

What is the catchment area?

The land area from which a five and it's tributaries collect the water passing from the soil and rock

43

What is a watershed?

High ground separating two neighbouring drainage areas

44

Name 3 inputs of a drainage basin?

Water
Energy
Rock waste

45

Name 3 processes in a drainage basin

Transport
Erosion
Deposition

46

Name 2 outputs in a drainage basin

Discharge
Sediment

47

What is a source of a river?

Where a river starts usually in an upland area

48

What is a tributary?

A branch of the main river

49

What is a confluence?

The point where two rivers join

50

What is the mouth of a river?

Where the river flows into the sea

51

What is an estuary of a river?

The mouth is low enough to let the sea enter at high tide which causes deposition

52

7 uses of drainage basins

Farming (fertile soil)
Water (consumption and HEP)
Transport (moving goods)
Settlement (locating by water for water use)
Recreation (fishing)
Conservation (wildlife)
Afforestation (fertile soil)

53

Define corrosion/abrasion

Large pieces of bed load wear away the riverbed and banks

54

Define attrition

Sediment particles hit into each other and break apart, becoming smaller and more rounded

55

Define hydraulic action

Force of the water wears away at softer rocks and can weaken harder rocks with faults

56

Define corrosion

Chemicals in the water dissolve the rock

57

Define traction

Large particles are pushed across the river bed

58

Define saltation

Pebble sized particles are bounced along the river bed

59

Define suspension

Small particles are carried along by the water

60

Define solution

Soluble materials dissolved in the water are carried along

61

Define deposition

When a river drops eroded material
E.g. When a river slows down, amount of eroded material increase or the water is shallower

62

What is a meander?

Large bends in a river, found in the middle and lower courses

63

What're the features of a meander?

The current is faster on the outside of the bend because the channel is deeper, more erosion them takes place forming river cliffs
Current is slower on inside of the bend because the channel is shallower forming slip off slopes

64

Describe how an ox bow lake is formed

1) Erosion causes the outside bends to get closer until there's a small bit of land left
2) The river breaks through this land during a flood and the river flows along this new route
3) Deposition eventually cuts off the meander

65

What is a flood plain?

A wide valley floor which occasionally gets flooded
Flood plains are built up because material is deposited when the water slows down over it in a flood
Meanders move across flood plains making it wider

66

What is a levee?

A natural embankment created as deposited material builds up

67

How is a waterfall and gorge formed? (Upper course of river)

Softer rock is eroded more than hard rock, a steep drop is eventually created
Hard rock is undercut, becomes unsupported and collapses
A plunge pool is created as this material is swirled around
The waterfall will retreat, leaving a steep sided gorge behind

68

How can contour line show you the direction of the river?

Number marked in contour lines will tell you the steepness- rivers flow downhill

69

What is river discharge?

The volume of water flowing in a river per second (measured in cumecs)

70

Define lag time

The delay between peak rainfall and peak discharge

71

What does a hydrograph show?

River discharge and rainfall

72

What is base flow on a hydrograph?

Normal discharge of a river

73

What 6 factors affect river discharge?

Temperature (hard ground increases run off)
Amount and type of rainfall
Previous weather conditions (saturated soil increases run off)
Land use (impermeable surfaces increase run off)
Relief (height of the land increases run off)
Rock type (impermeable rock increases run off)

74

Name two human factors which contribute to rivers flooding

Deforestation
Building construction

75

What is hard engineering?

Reducing the risk of flooding

76

What is soft engineering?

Reducing the effects of flooding

77

Give an example of hard engineering

Dams and reservoirs

78

Give a few examples of soft engineering

Flood warnings, floodplain zoning

79

What were the causes for Boscastle flooding?

Convectional thunderstorm
Impermeable surfaces
Steep catchment
Peak discharge of 100 cumecs
Peak rainfall 120mm in 1hour

80

What were the effects of Boscastle flooding?

No deaths
Buildings damaged
Trees uprooted
Tourists cut their holidays short

81

What were the responses to the Boscastle flood?

7 helicopters rescues 150 people
Water pumped out of flooded houses
Houses and roads repaired

82

Facts for Boscastle

Cornwall, SE England
River Jordan and River Valency
August 2004

83

What is freeze thaw weathering?

When temp alternates above and below 0 degrees
Water gets into rocks with cracks
When water freezes it expands which puts pressure on the rock
When water thaws it contracts, releasing the pressure
This process widens the crack and causes the rock to break up

84

Describe a destructive wave

Waves with a high frequency
High ands steep
More powerful backwash than awash resulting in erosion of the coastline

85

What is mass movement?

Shifting of rocks and loose material down a slope
Occurs when force of gravity is greater than force supporting it

86

What is the difference between slides and slumps?

Slides- material shifts in a straight line
Slumps- material shift with a rotation

87

How are wave cut platforms formed?

Waves erode cliff to form a wave cut notch, the rock above becomes unstable and collapses, this is washed away and the process happens again, as the cliff retreats a wave cut platform is left

88

What is the reason for the formation of headlands and bays?

Differential erosion

89

How is a stack formed?

Headlands are usually made of resistant rocks with cracks, waves enlarge the cracks by erosion, this eventually forms a cave, this cave is deepened by erosion until it breaks through to form a arch, unsupported material collapses, leaving a stack
E.g. Dorset

90

How is material transported along the coast?

Longshore drift

91

Describe the process of Longshore drift

Waves follow the direction of the prevailing (most common) wind and hit the coast
The swash carried the material up the beach and the backwash carries it down the beach to the sea at right angles

92

What is a constructive wave?

Builds up the coastline as it deposits material
Low frequency
Low and long
Swash is more powerful than backwash

93

How is a spit formed?

Longshore drift transports material past a sharp bend in the coast
The sheltered area behind is protected by waves and can allow a mud flat or salt marsh to form

94

What is a bar?

When a spots joins two headlands together, a lagoon can then form behind the bar

95

Name a fast eroding coastline in Europe

Holderness in East Yorkshire stretching from Flamborough Head to Spurn Head

96

What are the reasons for erosion at Holderness?

Easily eroded rock-boulder clay
Naturally narrow beaches
People-coastal defences built at Mappleton affect other places
Powerful waves as have a long fetch

97

What're the impacts of erosion at Holderness?

Homes at risk
Property prices falling
Businesses at risk
Gas terminal at Easington at risk which supplies 25% of Britains gas
Farmland lost
Lagoons at risk of being connected to the sea and will be destroyed

98

Name some methods of hard engineering to prevent coastal erosion

Sea walls
Rock armour
Groynes

99

Name some methods of soft engineering to manage coastal erosion

Beach nourishment
Marsh creation
Dune regeneration
Managed retreat

100

Sea walls
What are they?
Advantages?
Disadvantages?

Concrete walls to reflect waves
✅Prevent erosion&flooding
❌Expensive and must be maintained

101

Rock armour
What are they?
Advantages?
Disadvantages?

Boulders piled up
✅Fairly cheap, absorb wave energy reducing erosion and flooding
❌Boulders can be moved so need to be replaced

102

Groynes
What are they?
Advantages?
Disadvantages?

Wooden fences built at right angles to trap material from Longshore drift
✅Create wider beaches, fairly cheap, prevents flooding and erosion
❌Put areas further down the coast at risk

103

Beach nourishment
What are they?
Advantages?
Disadvantages?

Material added to beaches
✅Creates wider beaches
❌Expensive and must be repeated

104

Dune regeneration
What are they?
Advantages?
Disadvantages?

Restoring sand dunes
✅Prevents flooding and erosion
❌Expensive and limited to a small internet

105

Managed retreat
What are they?
Advantages?
Disadvantages?

Removing an existing defence and allowing the land behind to flood
✅Land will become marshland creating new habitats, cheap
❌Disagreements over land being flooded e.g. Farmland

106

How is Holderness protected from erosion?

Sea wall
Wooden grounds
Rock armour

107

Give an example of a spit

Spurn point