Flashcards in Theme 2: Land issues (1845-91) Deck (27):
What were to become known as the main demands for fair land terms?
Free Sale> Land sold to next interested tenant & evicted farmers compensated for any improvements to land
Fair Rent> Fair rents decided upon by commissioner in tribunal
Fixity of Tenure> Tennant guaranteed occupation of land for a time period
After the Great Famine what was the landowners treatment of the tenants like?
Land investment and improvement, reasonable rents, peaceful and prosperous for tenants
How did Fenianism lead to the 1870 Land Act?
Combined with constitutional nationalism it was a very effective political force that was very influential in a democracy when it came to general elections. Gladstone realised this and saw an opportunity to gain support
How did the economic downturn lead to the 1870 Land Act?
Gladstone recognised the economic difficulties of Ireland following the late 1860s economic downturn, it was hoped that the act would provide some form of recovery and prosperity to Irish
How did Gladstone lead to the 1870 Land Act?
He was notably sympathetic towards the Irish tenants and felt that the Act would be morally correct, as shown by the legalising by custom of the act
What were the terms of the 1870 Land Act?
Free Sale, non-exorbitant rents and loans for tenants wishing to buy the land
What were the limitations of the 1870 Land Act?
No tribunal for deciding rents, not everyone was covered, easily manipulated by landlords, loans were mostly unaffordable, no fixity of tenure.
What was the importance of the 1870 Land Act?
It was a symbol of change and setting a precedent for future improvements
What lead to the founding of the National Land League?
Another late 1870s economic downturn
How much did potato production fall in the late 1870s economic downturn?
Who formulated and when was the national league formed?
Who was elected president of the National Land League?
Charles Stewart Parnell
What methods did the NLL use?
Media, protest, speeches and assassinations
What did the NLL want ?
Land Reform mostly however it was under an umbrella movement
What did the NLL act as?
Umbrella movement for change in both land and home rule
Why was there an umberella movement for land and home rule?
Because Parnell was part of two big Irish organisations: Irish National Land League and Irish Nationalist Party. The names lead people to see them as one
What events were the NLL tied to?
Captain Boycott Incident and assassination of Lord Montmares
Why did Gladstone introduce the 1881 Land Act?
Acted as a stress reliever for the bubbling violence upon the surface of social and political life
What did the 1881 Land Act fully guarantee?
The 3 F's
What was the Kilmainham treaty and when?
In 1882 Parnell was released from prison in return for him to stop inspiring the rent strike and in return the rents of tenants would be wiped clean
Why did the NLL call for the "Plan of Campaign"?
Another late 1880's economic downturn and the revival of the National Land League by John Dillon and William O'Brien after its previous years of uncertainty lead them to call for reduced rents
What did the Conservative government aim to do with coercion and conciliation?
Kill land question with kindness
Why was there a late 1870's economic downturn
1) Potato Crop failure
2) sudden mass importing of cheap American goods
What percentage of landlords did not live on the land in the 1870's?
Who did landlords ask to take control of their land while they were away and how did this create tension?
They asked land agents to take control of the land of whom were usually ex-military and slept with a gun under pillow that meant they were violent, especially in West Ireland
Why did the state of Irish land improve between the Great Famine and the 1870s?
There was more space available and sympathy as 1 million died and 1.5 million emigrated