Flashcards in Theme 4: Home Rule (1886-1905) Deck (40):
What was a major problem with the term and idea of Home Rule?
It had many different interpretations and as it was such a big issue some believed it incapsulated a number of issues where others didn't.
What were some of the questions and problems with the idea of home rule?
Problem of Ulster, threat to empire, would it be enough, what relationship did home rule actually mean
When was the first Home Rule bill proposed?
Why was the first home rule bill proposed?
1) The strength of the Irish Party after 1885 election lead Gladstone to fear they may decide to set up their own parliament unconstitutionally
2) Hawarden Kite
3) Gladstone's sympathy
4) Arguably, to sideline chamberlain, he tried to reassert his authority
What is the Hawarden Kite and how did it spring Gladstone into proposing the home rule bill?
Gladstones son and secretary accidentally leaked information regarding their masters intentions to propose and support home rule for Ireland. Gladstone was forced to speed up the process as he feared that talk and opinion would go against him giving him worse chances to get the Bill to pass.
What were the main proposals of the 1886 Home Rule Bill?
Ireland given a two-order assembly, Irish income still given to British treasury, Irish MP's not allowed at Westminster
Why did the 1st home rule bill fail?
> Hawarden Kite forced Gladstone to rush an unfinished bill
> Proposals: Ulster issue & Irish MP's not allowed at Westminster lead many to feel they were unaccountable
> HofL majority:They would have prevented the bill passing anyway
> Consultation: he did not consult his party over the bill
What was the vote in the HofC regarding the first Home Rule Bill?
How many Liberals rebelled against Gladstone's 1st home rule bill?
What was Constructive Unionism?
A policy approach adopted by the Conservatives which used coercion and conciliation to "kill the home rule question with kindness" by improving mostly the economic situation of Ireland, so that the political fuss would dissipate.
When was the Perpetual Crimes Act and why was it significant?
1887, it meant that Arthur Balfour could arrest individuals if they were thought to be causing or being the source of political unrest
What was the name of the Massacre that was carried out under the 1887 Perpetual Crimes Act also what happened and when?
1887 Mitchelstown Massacre (3 Irish unlawfully killed)
How many priests were arrested under the perpetual crimes act during constructive unionism?
What was the Plan of Campaign and who lead it?
John Dillon and William O'Brien (members of Parnell's party) lead the plan of campaign that involved rent strikes and boycotts to try and gain better rents
Why would the plan of campaign be damaging to Parnell?
It threatened his respectability as a leader and made it difficulty to present the party as constitutional and cooperative
When was Parnell proven not to be associated to the activities of the Plan of Campaign?
What did the Times Newspaper try to associate Parnell to?
The Plan of Campaign
When were a number of Conservative Land Acts, and what did they all aid with in particular?
1887 & 1891 both built upon the 1885 Act by promoting tenant land purchase
What was the name of the committee that was set up in Ireland as part of constructive unionism, and when?
What did the Congested District Boards do and when were they created?
Helped relocate Irish citizens living in compact and congested areas of housing 1891
How much money was made available in loans for the tenants to buy their land in the 1891 Land Act?
How many acres had the congested district boards handed out to the Irish by 1923?
What and when was the Local Government Act?
In 1898 this act aimed to give greater power to the local governments of parts of Ireland by giving many householders the vote
How much in loans were made available as part of the 1885 Ashbourne Purchase act?
What and who was the oh so infamous Wyndham Land Act?
In 1903, this act encouraged the landlords to sell the land to the tenants. It gave bonuses to those who sold and for tenants they would pay back interest at a low and prolonged period
What did the Balfour Land act achieve and when?
1) A further £5Million in land purchase loans made available
2) Allowed for the tenant to participate in the rent tribunal that was granted by the 1881 Land Act
How much money was provided for selling bonuses under the Wyndham Land Act?
Outline the way tenants would pay back interest under the Wyndham Land Act
3.28% over 68 Years
What was the Irish parties response to Constructive Unionism?
It was varied. Some saw plainly and recognise it as a great period for Ireland. However some saw it as too good as it threatened to, as it said, kill home rule with kindness which meant the issue for the greater goal would be lost.
What was proposed in the 1893 Home Rule Bill by Gladstone?
It addressed the same issues as in 1886 however it resolved most issues that came from it such as Irish MP's at Westminster
Why did the 1893 Home a Rule Bill fail?
House of Lords passed it down by 419-41
What lead to the fall of Parnell?
His private life: He was proven to be an adulterer as part of the Captain O'Shea divorce papers. This was bad because, adultery was a great sin in Victorian times so reputation plummeted
What happened to the Liberal Party as a result of Parnell's fall?
It split into two divisions (For and Against Parnell) in 1891 and then eventually was united again in 1900
How many Irish MP's did Gladstone propose attend Westminster as part of the 1893 HR Bill?
When did Parnell die?
After the 1885 election, due to the strength of the IPP, who did Parnell temporarily target to reduce the power of the house of lords?
The Conservatives (e.g Lord Caernarvon)
What was Gladstone's view on coercion?
To use it where necessary such as the Phoenix Park Murders and New Departure
Who were the group of fenians who carried out violent activity such as the attack on Gladstone's nephew in the Phoenix Park Murders?
What were some of Gladstone's biggest political mistakes?
1) Failure to consult his political party in 1886
2) Thinking that the Conservatives could be ushered into supporting home rule
3) The failure not to consider Ulster in HR