Flashcards in Theories of Child Development Deck (32):
The maturationist theory states that human traits, behaviors, and learning are genetically _
The maturationist theory states that environment is _ _ on a child's development
What are the 2 main critiques of the maturationist theory?
Environment accounts for more than 50% of "innate" intelligence
This theory could cause parents to give up on their children assuming they are predetermined for failure
How does the behaviorist theory differ from the maturationist theory?
The behaviorist theory focuses on experience and environmental influence on development rather than genetics
Classical conditioning shapes behavior by:
Pairing a neutral stimulus with a pleasant or unpleasant event
Operant conditioning shapes behavior by:
What are the 2 key components of the Social Learning theory?
Children learn by imitating desirable behaviors modeled by adults
When children are rewarded for a modeled behavior they do it more frequently
What is the biggest critique of the behaviorist and social learning theory?
Behavior does not fully explain the complex act of learning
Psychoanalytic Theory states that children's emotional health is determined from their ability to resolve conflict between:
Internal impulses/desires and external pressures
What term did Frued use to describe instinctual urges that want to satisy basic drives?
The _ emerges in early infancy and is more rational and regulates and redirects the instinctual urges so that needs are only fulfilled at appropriate times
_ is comprised of conscience where the values and moral customs of culture are included
What are Erikson's 8 stages of development?
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Integrity vs. Despair
What are the 2 main critiques of the psychoanalytic theory?
Only focuses on emotional states does not account for other aspects of development
Based on a small sample
Cognitive-Development theory states that _ growth is the most important aspect in a child's development
Cognitive-Development theory states that everything humans do is motivated by _ and _
Thinking and language
Cognitive-Development thoery states that learning occurs as a result of complex _ and _ processes
Thinking and learning
Jean Piaget believes knowledge is developed through the:
Action of the learner
What two concepts are needed for learning to take place?
Assimilation and accommodation
Give a zebra example of assimilation and accommodation
A child seeing a zebra and calling it a horse is assimilation. The child assimilates this into her schema for horse. Once she finally learns the word zebra she has accommodated this information
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development?
Sensoirmotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
What are the 2 main critiques of the cognitive development theory?
Research shows that kids have more
intellectual capacity then what Piaget suggests
Children in different cultures may develop specific skills
at a faster rate based on their experiences
How is the sociocultural theory different from the cognitive-development theory?
It includes that social interaction and culture have a great influence on thinking
Lev Vygotsky said that _ engage in nonverbal thoughts and non conceptual speech
Lev Vygotsky said that _ _ begin having more verbal thought and use self-directed speech
In the sociocultural theory, Zone of Proximal Development means:
When a problem/task is out of a child's intellect an adult can ask questions and give cues to cause intellectual growth in the child
Why was Vygotsky's sociocultural theory left incomplete?
Because he died! :(:(:(:(
What makes the information processing theory similar to Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories?
All three of them believe that learning is an active process that occurs when we construct meaning from our experiences
The information processing theory is mostly concerned with:
Intellectual development and learning
The information processing theory states that thinking changes _ overtime and is more _ (not fixed)
Thinking changes gradually overtime and is more cohesive (not fixed)
What are the two key components to learning according to the information processing theory?
The child must be able to 1. pay attention and 2. store the information into memory