Theories of Motivation (HR Development) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Theories of Motivation (HR Development) Deck (49):
1

List levels of learning according to Bloom's taxonomy.

- Knowledge
- Comprehension
- Application
- Analysis
- Synthesis
- Evaluation

2

The printing press operator could explain how yup the machine works.

Which level of learning is this an example of?

Comprehension

3

The operator would be able to run the printing press to produce printed copy.

Which level of learning is this an example of?

Application

4

At this level of learning the learner understands the information to the level of being able to break it down and explain how it fits together.

Analysis

5

The operator would be able to do preventive maintenance or determine how to operate the machine more efficiently.

This is an example of which type of learning level?

Analysis

6

A press machine operator is able to train other employees.

Which level of learning is this an example of?

Synthesis

7

At this level of learning, a printing press operator would be able to name the parts of the press.

What level learning is this an example of?

Knowledge

8

An operator would be able to choose between presses to select the one that makes the best copies for the best price.

This is an example of which type of learning level?

Evaluation

9

List three principles of human behavior.

The first principle states that all human behavior is caused.
Second, all behavior is directed toward achieving a goal.
Finally, each person is unique because of different heredity and environment.

10

This motivational theory suggests that there are five basic human needs, arranged in a hierarchy.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

11

List the needs according to Maslow's theory.

1. Basic physical needs.
2. Safety and security
3. Belonging and love
4. Esteem
5. Self-actualization.

12

List two factors in Herzberg's Motivation Theory

- Hygiene factors (extrinsic)
- Motivation factors (intrinsic)

13

Crucial point of Maslow's theory
(Key knowledge, not a question)

The needs are arranged in a hierarchy. A lower-level need must be relatively satisfied in order for a higher-level need to emerge or serve to motivate. No need is ever totally satisfied, however, therefore; the lower-level needs will always have some influence on behavior. The theory's main strength is recognition and identification of individual needs for the purpose of motivating behavior.

14

According to Herzberg's theory, job security, pay, working conditions, supervision, and relations with coworkers are examples of what?

Hygiene factors (extrinsic)

15

According to Herzberg's Theory, an opportunity for recognition, achievement, and personal growth are examples of what?

Motivation factors (intrinsic)

16

This level of learning allows the learner to translate or interpret information.

Comprehension

17

This motivation theory is based on studies showing that some people have an intense need to achieve while others do not. It identifies the characteristics of people with high needs for achievements.

McClelland's Theory

18

This theory of motivation is based on two types of managerial approaches: "participative" and "authoritative"

McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y

19

At this level of learning the learner has the ability to use the learned information in a new situation.

Application

19

This theory of work motivation concludes that employees have two different categories of needs that are essentially independent of each other and affect behavior in different ways.

Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

22

According to McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, managers who believe that employees dislike rigid controls and inherently want to accomplish something; thus operate with what is known as a "participative" style.
Is this an example of Theory X or Theory Y?

"Participative" management style may be labeled as the Theory Y manager

23

According to McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y managers, who believe that employees inherently do not like to work and must be strictly controlled and forced to work; thus, they operate from what is known as an "authoritative" style.
This is an example of Theory X or Theory Y?

"Authoritative" management style may be labeled as X Theory managers.

24

Explain three foundations of Vroom's Expectancy Theory.

- Individuals believe that certain behaviors are linked to certain outcomes.
- Outcomes (rewards) have varying degrees of value, worth, and attractiveness for different individuals.
- Individuals believe that certain behaviors are associated with a probability of success; this determines the individual's decision regarding the effort to do the behavior in order to receive the associated outcome.

25

Name three factors of Vroom's Expectancy Theory

- Expectancy
- Instrumentality
- Valence

26

According to Vroom's Expectancy Theory, a person's belief that a chance exists that a certain effort will lead to a particular level of performance, which, in turn, will lead to certain outcomes.

Expectancy

27

A key factor in an individual's ability to learn.
Factors that initiate, direct, and sustain human behavior over time.

Motivation

28

According to Vroom's Expectancy Theory, this is the strength of an individual's desire for a particular outcome.

Valence

29

This motivation theory is based on the belief that people want to be treated fairly. Thus, individuals compare themselves to other people to see if their treatment is equitable.

Adam's Equity Theory

30

In this level of learning the learner can recall specific facts.

Knowledge

31

Based on Adam's Equity Theory, when employees envision an inequity, they may:
(Key knowledge, not a question)

- Distort inputs or outputs (own's or others')
- Induce others to change their input or output
- Behave in a way that changes their own inputs or outputs
- Choose a different comparison
- Quit their jobs

32

This motivation theory is based on the belief that employees' behavior is determined by its consequences, and management may therefore control the future behavior by various reactions to current situations.

Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory

33

Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory
(Key knowledge, not a question)

Behavior modification provides employees with immediate knowledge of the results of their behavior. Desired behavior is recognized / rewarded; undesired behavior is ignored / punished by:
- Positive reinforcement
- Negative reinforcement
- Punishment
- Extinction

34

Level of learning characterized by ability to make judgments.

Evaluation

35

This is the highest level of learning because it allows one to make judgements.

Evaluation

35

Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory
(Key knowledge)

Unacceptable conditions in regard to hygiene factors will lead to job dissatisfaction. Acceptable conditions will lead only to a state of satisfaction; they do not motivate - they only satisfy. However, hygiene factors levels must be acceptable in order for the motivation factors to become operative.

36

According to Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory, this type of treatment involves giving a person desired reward to attain desired behavior and/or encourage its repetition.

Positive reinforcement

37

According to Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory, this type of treatment involves avoiding an undesirable consequence by giving the person a reward when a desired response is exhibited.

Negative reinforcement

38

According to Vroom's Expectancy Theory, this is a person's belief that a specific action leads to a specific outcome.

Instrumentality

39

According to Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory, this type of treatment involves no response; the behavior is not reinforced and it will diminish and eventually become nonexistent.

Extinction

40

Salary increases, gifts, and bonuses are examples of what type of reinforcers, according to Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory?

Contrived

41

Attention, recognition, praise, and job performance feedback are what type of reinforcers, According to Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory?

Natural reinforcers

42

At this level of learning the learner would be able to respond to new situations and determine trouble-shooting techniques and solutions.

Synthesis

43

Which integration strategy is used when a subject receives no response at all:
a.) Positive reinforcement
b.) Negative reinforcement
c.) Extinction
d.) Punishment

c.) Extinction.

Extinction involves no response. When behavior is not reinforced (positively, negatively, or via punishment), the behavior will diminish and eventually become nonexistent.

44

Level of learning characterized by ability to translate or interpret information.
Example: printing press operator could explain how the machine works.

Comprehension

45

List 7 Motivation Theories

- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory
- McClelland's Theory
- McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y
- Vroom's Expectancy Theory
- Adam's Equity Theory
- Skinner's Reinforcement Theory

45

According to Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory, this type of treatment results in a decrease in the undesirable behavior because the response causes something negative to occur.

Punishment

47

Level of learning characterized by understanding information to the level of being able to break it down and explain how it fits together.
Example: operator would be able to do preventative maintenance or determine how to operate the machine more efficiently.

Analysis

48

Rewards such as pay, benefits, bonuses, promotions, achievement awards, time off, more freedom and autonomy, special assignments, etc.

Extrinsic rewards

49

According to Maslow, which of the following is an example of an esteem need?
a.) Opportunities for growth
b.) Base salary
c.) Effective work team
d.) Recognition

d.) Recognition

Opportunities for growth would be an example of self actualization. Base salary- safety and security; and an effective work team- belonging and love.