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Flashcards in Human Resource Development Deck (634):
0

Five-step instructional design process that governs the development of human resource development program

ADDIE model

1

Act that prohibits discrimination in employment for persons over age 40 and over.

Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)

2

Act that prohibits discrimination against a qualified individual with a disability because of his/her disability.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

3

Level of learning characterized by understanding information to the level of being able to break it down and explain how it fits together.

Analysis

4

Study of how adults learn

Andragogy

5

Level of learning characterized by ability to use learned information in a new situation.

Application

6

Relates to technical skills training; often a partnership between employers and union.

Apprenticeship

7

Ability to learn information or acquire a skill

Aptitude

8

Type of e-learning in which participants access information at different times and in different places.

Asynchronous learning

9

People who learn best by relying oh their sense of hearing.

Auditory learners

10

Occurs when an appraiser's values, beliefs, or prejudices distort performance ratings.

Bias

11

Planned approach to learning that includes a combination of methods such as classroom, e-learning, self-paced study, and performance support such as job aids or coaching.

Blended learning

12

Process by which individuals progress through a series of stages in their careers, each of which is characterized by relatively unique issues, themes, and tasks.

Career development

13

Preparing, implementing, and monitoring employees' career paths, with a primary focus on the goals of the organization.

Career management

14

Actions and activities that individuals perform in order to give direction to their work life.

Career planning

15

Diagram that maps out a list of factors that are though to affect a problem or a desired outcome.

Cause-and-effect diagram

16

Error that occurs when an appraiser rates all employees within a narrow rage, regardless of difference in actual performance.

Central tendency error

17

Simple visual tools used to collect and analyze data.

Check sheet

18

Set of behaviors encompassing skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes that are critical to successful work accomplishment.

Competencies

19

Level of learning characterized by ability to translate or interpret information.

Comprehension

20

Error that occurs when an employee's rating is based on how his or her performance compares to that of another employee rather than objective standards.

Contrast standard

21

Chart that illustrates variations from normal in a situation over time.

Control chart

22

Form of protection provided by the U.S. government to authors of "original works" to exclude others form printing or otherwise duplicating, distributing, or vending copies of their literary, artistic, and other creative expressions.

Copyright

23

Act that defines the protection provided to authors of "original works" to exclude others from printing or otherwise duplicating, distributing, or vending copies of their literary, artistic, and other creative expressions, including through the various means of technology.

Copyright Act

24

Skills knowledge, and abilities that employees must possess in order to successfully perform job functions that are essential to business operations.

Core competencies

25

Type of learning curve in which the amount of learning or skill level increases rapidly at first and then the rate of improvement slows.

Decreasing returns

26

Activities that focus on preparing employees for future responsibilities while increasing their capacity to perform their current jobs.

Developmental activities

27

Process of delivering educational or instructional programs to locations away for a classroom or site.

Distance Learning

28

Differences in characteristics of people. can involve personality, work style, race, age, ethnicity, gender, religion, education, functional level at work, etc.

Diversity

29

Training designed to inform senior management and staff about diveristy and to develop concrete skills that will facilitate enhanced productivity and communications among all employees.

Diversity training

30

Career development programs that identify meaningful career paths for professional and technical people whose preferences may be outside traditional management roles.

Dual Career Ladders

31

Delivery of formal and informal training and education materials, processes, and programs via the use of electronic media.

E-learning

32

Ability of an individual to be sensitive to and understanding of the emotions of others and to manage his or her own emotions and impulses.

Emotional intelligence

33

Level of learning characterized by ability to make judgments.

Evaluation

34

Coaching typically conducted by a third-party vendor to support managers in mastering the fundamental principles and practices for achieving extraordinary results and empowering staff success.

Executive coaching

35

Process of sending employees abroad and supporting their ability to adapt to culture changes and complete their international assignment.

Expatriation

36

Coaching typically available to professional, exempt, and/or high-potential employees that is done in a private ad confidential relations with a trained or certified consultant/coach.

External coaching

37

Rewards such as pay, benefits, bonuses, promotions, achievement rewards, time off, more freedom and autonomy, special assignments, etc.

Extrinsic rewards (nagrody pochodzace z zewnatrz)

38

Provision of the Copyright Act that allows the use of copyright work in certain circumstances.

Fair use

39

Career development programs that involve identifying a pool of potential leaders and rapidly increasing their leadership skill and development.

Fast-track programs

40

Strong but invisible career barrier that sometimes exists for minorities and women.

Glass ceiling

41

Clear statement, usually in one sentence, of the purpose and intent of a human resource development program.

Goal

42

Occurs when an employee is extremely competent in one area and is therefore rated high in all categories.

Halo effect

43

Society or group where people have close connections over a long period of time and where many aspects of behavior are not made explicit, because most members know what to do and think form years of interaction.

High-context culture

44

Graphic representation of the distribution of a single type of measurement; data is represented by a series of rectangles of varying heights.

Histogram

45

Occurs when an employee receives an overall low rating because of one weakness.

Horn effect

46

Set of systamatic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills and/or competencies to meet current and future job demands.

Human Resource Development (HRD)

47

Type of learning curve in which progress is initially slow because basics are being learned but then performance takes off after the initial learning phase.

Increasing returns

48

Consists of ongoing meetings between supervisors and employees to discuss the employee's career path.

Internal coaching

49

Meaningful work, good feedback on performance, autonomy, and other factors that lead to high levels of satisfaction in the job.

Intrinsic rewards

50

Broadening the scope of a job by expending the number of different tasks to be performed.

Job enlargement

51

Increasing the depth of a job by adding responsibilities for planning, organizing, controlling, and evaluation.

Job enrichment

52

Movement between different jobs

Job rotation

53

People who learn best through a hands-on approach; also called tactile learners.

Kinesthetic learners

54

Level of learning characterized by ability to recall specific facts.

Knowledge

55

Process of creating, acquiring, sharing, and managing knowledge to augment individual and organizational performance.

Knowledge Management (KM)

56

Ability of an individual to influence a group or another individual toward the achievement of goals and results.

Leadership

57

System that holds course content information and has the capability of tracking and managing employee course registration, career development, and other employee development activities.

Learning Management System (LMS) / Learning Management Content System (LMCS)

58

Learning elements that may be reused in a variety of context; examples include animated graphics, job aids, and print modules.

Learning Objects (LOs)

59

Organization characterized by a capability to adapt to changes in environment.

Learning organization

60

Ways individuals learn and process ideas.

Learning styles

61

Errors that are the result of appraisers who don't want to give low scores.

Leniency errors

62

Society where people tend to have many connections but of shorter duration and where behavior and beliefs may need to be spelled out explicitly so that those coming into the cultural environment know how to behave.

Low-context culture

63

Directing day-to-day organizational operations.

Management

64

Developmentally oriented relationship between two individuals

Mentoring

65

Factors that initiate, direct, and sustain human behavior over time.

Motivation

66

Process by which an organization's needs are identified in order to help the organization accomplish its objectives; also called needs analysis.

Needs assessment

67

Results that participants will be able to perform at the end of human resource development program.

Objectives

68

Process of new employee assimilation into the organization, which often lasts up to six months or a year.

Onboarding

69

Training provided to employees at the work site utilizing demonstration and performance of job tasks.

On-the-job training (OJT)

70

Shared attitudes and perceptions in an organization.

Organizational culture

71

Process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions.

Organizational Development (OD)

72

Certain types of learning activities or processes that may occur at any one of several levels in an organization.

Organizational learning

73

Initial phase of employee training that covers organizational goals and strategies, job responsibilities, and organizational policies.

Orientation

74

Programs developed to assist displaced employees in finding jobs and adjusting to change.

Outplacement programs

75

Vertical bar graph on which bar height reflects frequency or impact of causes.

Pareto Chart

76

Study of the education of children.

Pedagogy

77

Process that measures the degree to which an employee accomplishes work requirements.

Performance appraisal

78

Process of maintaining or improving employee job performance through the use of performance assessment tools, coaching, and counseling as well as providing continuous feedback.

Performance management

79

Expectations of management translated into behaviors and results that employees can deliver.

Performance standards

80

Human resource development programs offered initially in a controlled environment with a segment of the target audience.

Pilot programs

81

Type of learning curve in which learning is fast at first but then flattens out with no apparent progress.

Plateau curve

82

Career state of employees who are no longer considered promotable.

Plateaued career

83

Occurs when an appraiser gives more weight to an employee's earlier performance and discounts recent occurrences.

Primacy error

84

Diagram of the steps involved in a process. Also known as flow charts, these diagrams depict a process and its outputs.

Process-flow analysis

85

Status of work when copyright protection ends; in general, copyright protection covers the life of the author plus 70 years.

Public domain

86

Error that occurs when an appraiser gives more weight to recent occurrences and discounts an employee's earlier performance during the appraisal period.

Recency error

87

Reintegrating employees into their home-country operations following an international assignment.

Repatriation

88

"Snapshot" assessment of the availability of qualified backup for key positions.

Replacement planning

89

Ability to keep talented employees in an organization.

Retention

90

Learning elements that may be reused in a variety of contexts; examples include animated graphics, job aids, and print modules.

Reusable learning objects (RLOs)

91

Illustration that depicts possible relationships between two variables.

Scatter diagram

92

Disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects.

Six Sigma

93

Type of learning curve in which learning occurs in a series of incresing and decreasing returns; usually seen when an employee is attempting to learn a difficult tasks that also required specific insight.

S-Shaped curve

94

Error that occurs when an appraiser believes standards are too low and inflates the standards in an effort to make them meaningful.

Strictness

95

Person who is well versed in the content of a human resource development program.

Subject matter experts (SMEs)

96

Process of systematically identifying, assessing, and developing leadership talent.

Succession planning

97

Process for evaluating an organization's identifying, assessing, and developing leadership talent.

SWOT analysis

98

Type of e-learning in which participants interact together in real time.

Synchronous learning

99

Level of learning at which the learner is able to respond to new situations and determine trouble-shooting techniques and solutions.

Synthesis

100

Development and integration of HR processes that attract, develop, engage, and retain the knowledge, skills, and abilities of employees that will meet current and future business needs.

Talent management

101

Systems management philosophy that states that every organization is hindered by constrains that come from its internal policies.

Theory of constraints (TOC)

102

Prohibits discrimination or segregation based on race, color, national origin, religion, and sex in all terms and conditions of employment.

Title VII, Civil Rights Act of 1964

103

Strategic, integrated management system for achieving customer satisfaction that involves all managers and employees and uses quantitative methods to continuously improve an organization's processes.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

104

Readiness to learn, combining students' levels of ability and motivation with their perception of the work environment.

Trainability

105

Process of providing knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) specific to a task or job.

Training

106

Effective and continuing on-the-job application of the knowledge and skills gained during a learning experience.

Transfer of training

107

Leadership style that motivates employees by inspiring them to join in a mutually satisfying achievement.

Transformational leadership

108

Federal guideline that require employers to show that they are not discriminating against or creating adverse impact on a group of applicants or employees, including selecting participants for training.

Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures

109

Act that requires benefit continuation and crediting of service while an employee is on military active duty.

Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA)

110

People who learn best by relying on their sense of sight.

Visual Learners

111

Results that participants will be able to perform at the end of a human resource development program.

Objectives

112

People who learn best by relying on their sense of hearing.

Auditory learners

113

Factors that initiate, direct, and sustain human behavior over time.

Motivation

114

Directing day-to-day organizational operations.

Management

115

Error that occurs when an employee’s rating is based on how his or her performance compares to that of another employee rather than objective standards.

Contrast error

116

Leadership style that offers the promise of reward or the threat of discipline to motivate employees.

Transactional leadership

117

Occurs when an employee is extremely competent in one area and is therefore rated high in all categories.

Halo effect

118

Process of providing knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) specific to a task or job.

Training

119

Ability of an individual to influence a group or another individual toward the achievement of goals and results.

Leadership

120

Level of learning characterized by ability to make judgments.

Evaluation

121

Increases the depth of a job by adding responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, and evaluation.

Job enrichment

122

Process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions.

Organizational development (OD)

123

Type of learning curve in which the amount of learning or skill level increases rapidly at first and then the rate of improvement slows.

Decreasing returns

124

Process of maintaining or improving employee job performance through the use of performance assessment tools, coaching, and counseling as well as providing continuous feedback.

Performance management

125

Strategic, integrated management system for achieving customer satisfaction that involves all managers and employees and uses quantitative methods to continuously improve an organization’s processes.

Total quality management (TQM)

126

Training designed to inform senior management and staff about diversity and to develop concrete skills that will facilitate enhanced productivity and communications among all employees.

Diversity training

127

Set of systematic and planned activities designed by an organization to provide its members with the necessary skills and/or competencies to meet current and future job demands.

Human resource development (HRD)

128

Delivery of formal and informal training and educational materials, processes, and programs via the use of electronic media.

E-learning

129

Movement between different jobs.

Job rotation

130

Process of new employee assimilation into the organization, which often lasts up to six months or a year.

Onboarding

131

Human resource development programs offered initially in a controlled environment with a segment of the target audience.

Pilot programs

132

Shared attitudes and perceptions in an organization.

Organizational culture

133

Readiness to learn, combining students’ level of ability and motivation with their perceptions of the work environment.

Trainability

134

Preparing, implementing, and monitoring employees’ career paths, with a primary focus on the goals of the organization.

Career management

135

Occurs when an appraiser’s values, beliefs, or prejudices distort performance ratings.

Bias

136

Set of behaviors encompassing skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes that are critical to successful work accomplishment.

Competencies

137

Diagram that maps out a list of factors that are thought to affect a problem or a desired outcome.

Cause-and-effect diagram

138

Learning elements that may be reused in a variety of contexts; examples include animated graphics, job aids, and print modules.

Reusable learning objects (RLOs)

139

Certain types of learning activities or processes that may occur at any one of several levels in an organization.

Organizational learning

140

Human Resource Development program is best if aligned with:

Organizational goals. (Vision, Mission, Objectives and Goals)

141

Principles to follow by an HR professional when aligning an Human Resource Development program.

- Link HRD learning objectives and outcomes to business needs and goals
- Maintain a strong "customer focus" in design, development, and implementation
- Manager HRD with a "system view" of performance
- Measure HRD process for improvement

142

Keys (9) to running the HRD Function like a business

- Link training to business strategies
- Focus on business issues, not training content
- Adapt to change in the business environment
- Promote learning as a way to fulfill specific business objectives
- Clarify HRD's business mission
- Expose hidden costs
- Reduce costs while building reliable processes
- Measure what matters
- Offer service guarantees

143

Peter Senge's five disciplined that interface and support one another required for a successful learning organization.

- Systems thinking
- Mental models
- Personal mastery
- Team learning
- Shared vision

144

Conceptual framework that makes patterns clearer and helps one see how things interrelate and how change them

Systems thinking

145

Deeply gained assumptions that influence how we view the world and how we take actions

Mental models

146

High level of proficiency in a KSA area

Personal mastery

147

Aligning and developing capacity of a team to create desired results

Team learning

148

Future look that fosters genuine commitment and is shared by all who need to possess it.

Shared vision

149

If Peter Senge's five disciplines are adopted, an organization has a learning climate in which:

- Learning is:
- Performance based and tied to business objective
- Matched to people's learning preferences
- Part of job description
- Importance is placed on how to learn
- The organization continues to develop KSA
- People are responsible for their own learning
- Leaders are designers, stewards, and teachers

150

In a culture that supports organizational learning:

- Members recognize the importance of organizational learning
- Learning is continuous
- There is a focus on creativity
- People have access to information that is important
- Individual and group learning is rewarded
- Well-defined core competencies

151

Levels of organizational learning

- Individual
- Group
- Organization

152

Distinction between Organizational learning and a learning organization.

Organizational learning is something that takes place in every organization at multiple levels.

A learning organization is a type of organization that has "learned" to react and adapt to its environment.

153

Key elements that the Knowledge Management (KM) focuses on:

- Expertise sharing and organizational learning
- Knowledge retention and the reduction of knowledge loss due to employee attrition.

154

Understanding what motivates an individual is MOST useful when

engaging employees in a learning process.

Motivation is a key factor in an individual's ability to learn. Understanding what motivates employees allows a manager or trainer to engage them in the learning process.

155

For HRD professionals, understanding their own learning style is important because

people tend to teach the way they prefer to learn.

HRD professionals need to understand their own learning styles, because they tend to teach others with the method by which they prefer to learn. Being aware of that makes them more cognizant of the need to develop activities that cater to a variety of learning styles.

156

At the end of a sales training seminar, a representative is able to list the five steps in the selling skills model. This is evidence of which level of learning?

Knowledge

The knowledge level requires a learner to recall specific facts. The learner is not yet able to interpret the information or apply it to work.

157

Which level of learner participation offers the best opportunity for retention?

Immediate use.

Immediate use of learning provides a 90% or higher retention rate.

158

Nine competency areas of the HR Success Competency Model

- HR Technical expertise and practice
- Relationship management
- Consultation
- Organization leadership and navigation
- Communication
- Global and cultural effectiveness (diversity and Inclusion)
- Ethical practice
- Critical evaluation
- business acumen

159

Key Legislations in HR Development

- Copy Right Act (1976)
- Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964)
- Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
- Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967)
- Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (1994)

160

The owners of "original works" have excsulsive rights to authorize others to:

- reproduce the work
- distribute copies to the public
- prepare derivative works or creations based on the original
- display copyrighted work publicly
- perform copyrighted work publicly

161

Exceptions to the "original work" copyrights of the author.

- "work for hire" (specially ordered r commissioned)
- works created by employees

162

In work-for-hire exception to the author's copyrights the following conditions must be met.

- The work must be listed as one of the then categories of Copyright Act
- There must be a written agreement between both parties

BOTH CONDITIONS MUST BE MET

163

Best way to avoid disputes about copyright ownership

Have a well-drafted agreement in place before the work starts, at least in situations involving non-employees or work created outside of an employee's regular duties.

164

Factors that may prevent "original work" from entering public domain

- national security
- contracts

165

How long copyright protection is covered

- in general life of author plus 70 years
- anonymous and works for hire 95 years from publication or 120 years form the year of creation, whichever expires first.

166

Work is considered to be in public domain if:

- Period of copyright protection has expired
- Published prior to Jan 1, 1978 without notice of copyright
- Published between Jan 1 1978 an Mar 1, 1989, without notice and without reasonable effort to affix notice and registration within five years
- produced for the U.S. government by its officers or employees as part of their official duties

167

Fair use allows of copyrighted work upon five factors

1. Purpose (commercial or noncommercial)
2. Nature (critique or parody vs. business flyer)
3. Percentage of the copyrighted work used
4. Amount (one or two copies vs. 100)
5. Effect on potential market value of the original

168

Coping pages from a book - is it fair use or is it a violation of Copyright Act?

Fair use provision will cover an excerpt that is extremely short and that has been attributed to the source. However, in general, pages from a book cannot be copied and used without permission.

169

If you are not charging for a training session, can you freely use copyrighted materials?

No

170

HR responsibility with Copyright

- Develop a Copyright Compliance Policy
- Communicate policy to all employees
- Put notices on copies and printers
- Put notices in electronics or technology use policies
- Use disciplinary action to enforce compliance

171

How does the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978) affect HR

Employers need to show that if they select certain individuals for a training session, they are not discriminating against or creating adverse impact on a group of potential participants.

172

Goals of Organizational Development (OD)

- Improve productivity (efficiency and effectiveness)
- People's satisfaction with work life
- Ability to revitalize and develop over time
- organizational processes and outputs

173

Organizational Development (OD) initiatives

- Focus on changing an entire system in comparison to a few components
- Focus on helping and diagnose and solve problems
- Link to the company Strategic Plan
- Use applied behavioral science
- Are adaptive and less rigid than formal planning processes

174

Examples of when Organizational Development (OD) are appropriate:

- When organization experiences a merger or acquisition that introduces a culture that is not compatible
- Experiences low trust, high turnover, or high stress
- Lacks the ability to manage conflict

175

Organizational Culture basic functions.

- gives members an organizational identity
- Facilitates collective commitment
- Promotes system stability
- Shapes behavior by helping embers make sense of their surroundings

176

Characteristics of strong cultures (in organizational culture)

- continuity of leadership
- geographic concentration
- small group size
- considerable success.

177

Adverse affect of strong cultures (in Organizational Development)

Strong cultures can stifle individual expression

178

Which type of cultures are most likely to collapse (weaker or stronger culture) and why?

Since it is virtually impossible to stand still in business, organizations with weaker cultures are more likely to collapse.

179

Findings of James L Heskett and Joh P. Kotter in "Corporate Culture and Performance"

Corporate Culture....

- can have a significant impact on a firm's long-term economic performance
- will probably be an even more important factor in determining the success or failure of organizations in the future
- ones that inhibit long-term financial performance are not rare; they develop easily, even in firms that are full of reasonable and intelligent people
- although difficult to change, it can be made more performance-enhancing

180

HR's role in Organizational Development (OD)

- Serve as change agent

- Conduct the evaluation of the intervention

181

Explain the role of change agent in Organizational Development (OD)

The HR can help the organization understand the full range of HR development programs and processes available to support the OD intervention.
A change agent is responsible for positively portraying the upcoming change during the facilitation of the actual change activities.
(ex. Team building workshops for the remaining members during layoffs)

182

Organizational Development Intervention Process Stages

Stage 1: Diagnose the environment

Stage 2: Develop an action plan

Stage 3: Evaluate the results

183

Activities at Diagnose the Environment, stage 1 of OD Intervention Process

- Determine readiness of target audience to accept change

184

Activities at Develop an Action Plan, Stage 2 of OD Intervention Process

- Identify specific variables
- Determine the strategies to be used
- Implement the plan

185

Activities at Evaluate the results, Stage 3 of OD Intervention Process

- Measure results and evaluate to determine if behavior toward change has occurred.

186

Two categories of Organizational Development theory:

- Change Process

- Implementation

187

Three stages of Kurt Lewin's changeprocess

- Unfreezing stage
- Moving stage
- Refreezing stage

188

Attempts to explain the dynamics through which organizational change takes place.

Change process theory (one of the categories in Organizational Development theory)

189

Getting people to accept that the change will occur. Ending things that resist change is vital in this stage.

Unfreezing (one of the stages in Kurt Lewin's change process of Organizational Development theory)

190

Getting people to accept the new, desired state.

Moving (one of the stages in Kurt Lewin's change process of Organizational Development theory)

191

When the new ideal becomes a regular part of the organization.

Refreezing (one of the stages in Kurt Lewin's change process of Organizational Development theory)

192

Its focus is the design and implementation of specific Organizational Development interventions. It is targeted at managing the change process.

Implementation theory (one of the theories in Organizational Development theory)

193

Three categories of Organizational Development intervention strategies:

- Interpersonal
- Technological
- Structural

194

This type of Organizational Development intervention strategy deals with relationships between employees.

Interpersonal strategy

195

This type of Organizational Development intervention strategy focus on processes; (process analysis, Job design, job specialization, job simplification, grouping jobs into departments by function or product, work flow analysis)

Technological strategies

196

This type of Organizational Development intervention strategies look at how the structure of the organization is helping or hindering the organization.

Structural strategies (ex. examine issues of span control, reporting relationships.)

197

Four types / examples of Organizational Development interventions:

- team building
- flexible work and staffing arrangements
- diversity programs
- quality initiatives

198

Group intervention in which a team in engaged in a series of activities designed to help them examine how they function and how they could function better.

Team building

199

Emphasis of Team Building intervention

- early identification and solution of problems that stand in the wa of group effectiveness.

200

Purpose of a team-building intervention

- facilitate the alignment of the management of the management team with the team's mission and goals
- develop effectiveness team dynamics for working together to accomplish the above goals

201

Focus of team building

- Goals and priorities for the management
- Role and responsibility of each member
- Procedures and norms for team functions
- Interpersonal relationships within the team
- Systems affecting work processes
- Client / Customer expectations

202

Flexible work schedule, telecommuting, phased retention are examples of what.

Flexible Work and Staffing, (one of the Organizational Development interventions types)

203

Creating environment with respect for a diverse culture that focuses on recruitment strategies, where everyone feels welcome, creating training and development programs that deal with employees' fears and stereotypes, etc. are examples of what?

Diversity Programs

204

Developing people and their talents and skills - building excellence.

Quality Initiatives (type of OD intervention)

205

Benefits of Total Quality Management (TQM).

- Find and eliminate problems
- Identify / satisfy customers' needs
- Eliminate waste
- Encourage pride and teamwork
- Create an environment that is conducting to creativity

206

Well-known names in quality consulting business

- Joseph M. Juran
- Philip B. Crosby
- W. Edwards

207

Took 14-point program for managing productivity and quality to Japan; received Japan's award for excellence in quality; his message was that if the organization made poor products it was their own fault.

W. Edward Deming

208

Defined quality as "fitness to use". His trilogy incorporates quality planning, quality control, and quality improvements.

Joseph M. Juran

209

Similarly to Daming, developed 14-point program for quality management. Added four qualities absolute: a definition of quality, a prevention system , a performance standard and the measurement of quality.

Philip B. Crosby

210

Widely applied in organizational development interventions
- Intended to absorb inputs, process them, and produce outputs
- essential to the quality movements ad leads to process improvements

Systems Theory

211

three components of Systems Theory

- Inputs
- Process
- Outputs

212

Two Quality standards programs

- Baldrige Performance Excellence Program
- ISO 9000

213

Type of quality standard program structured in seven categories.

Baldrige Performance Excellence

214

This type of quality standards program requires conformity to practices specified in the registrant's own quality system.

ISO 9000

215

Type of analysis that depicts a diagram of the steps (and its outputs) involved in a process. Also known as flowcharts.

Process-flow analysis.

216

An illustration of variations from normal in a situation over time. Has upper and lower control limits drawn on either side of a process range, which allows users to see if the process is out of range.

Control Chart

217

Uses a visual to map our a list of factors that are thought to affect a problem or a desired outcome.

Cause-and-Effect Diagram (also referred to as an Ishikawa or fishbone diagram)

218

Depicts possible relationships between two variables.

Scatter diagram

219

A simple visual tool sued to collect and analyze data. Employees make a check mark to keep track of the item in question.

Check sheet

220

Based on a principle that 80% of effects come from 20% of causes.

Pareto Chart

221

In Abraham Maslow's (1954) Hierarchy of Needs, identify five levels of needs that motivate people:

- Physiological needs (food, place to live)
- Safety needs (safe from physical and emotional harm)
- Social needs (desire for acceptance and belonging within their social group)
- Esteem needs (recognition for their achievements)
- Self-actualization needs (looking for opportunities to be creative and fulfill their own potential)

222

Reinforcement is the key element in B.F. Skinner's Stimulation-Response theory. Under this theory, what does the term “re-Enforcer” refer to?

a. Cognition: to know, to understand, and explore
b. Aesthetics: symmetry, order, and beauty
c. Anything that strengthens the desired response
d. Belonging and Love: affiliating with others, being accepted



c.) B.F. Skinner – Praise – encourage increase in the future frequency of a behavior desired behaviors”

223

“Katy Delancy is motivated to work harder because she believes that her efforts will yield better job performance and that better job performance will lead to rewards. Which theory has she illustrated?”

a.) Brown’s Reward Theory
b.) Hurt’s Theory of Effort
c.) Weaver’s Theory of Expected Reward
d.) Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
e.) Virgil’s Thoery



d.) Vroom’s Expectancy Theory asserts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that effort will yield better job performance and that better job performance will lead to rewards.

224

Every organization faces constraints, and the greatest constraints come from policies and not from physical entities such as resources or materials.

Goldrat's Theory (Theory of Constraints - TOC)

225

Five steps in Goldratt's Theory of Constraints.

1. Identify the system's constraints
2. Decide how to how to get the most out (exploit) of the constraint
3. Subordinate and align the whole system to support the decision made above
4. Make other major changes needed to increase the constraint's capacity
5. Warning! If in the previous steps a constraint has been broken, go back to step 1, but do not allow inertia to cause a system's constraint.

226

To achieve Six Sigma a process must not produce more than xx defects per 1 million opportunities.

3.4

Six sigma defect is defined as anything outside of customer specifications.

227

Two improvement processes used by Six Sigma

- DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) a system for improving existing processes
- DMADV (define, measure, analyze, design, verify) a system for developing new processes

228

Six Sigma Green belts

employees

229

Six Sigma Black Belts

Project Leaders

230

Six Sigma Master Black Belts

Quality Leaders

231

Which of the following is an illustration of the relationship between two variables.
a. Control Chart
b. Process-flow chart
c. Pareto chart
d. Scatter diagram

d. Scatter diagram depicts possible relationship between two variables.
(ex. correlation between years of education and salary)

232

Which of the following prioritizes categories from most frequent to least frequent.
a.) Control chart
b. Process-flow analysis
c.) Pareto chart
d.) Scatter diagram

c. ) Pareto chart states that 80% of effect come from 20% of causes. This type of chart is a vertical bar graph and the bars are arranged in descending order of height , from left to right.

233

Which of the follwoing management consultants advocats a 14-point program and "four quality absolutes"?
a.) W. Edwards Deming
b.) Joseph M. Juran
c.) Philip B. Crosby
d.) All three consutants

c.) Philip B. Crosby

234

Findings show that there has been number of delays in response to customer inquiries due to reporting structures limiting communications to "proper channels". Which organizational development approach should be evaluated to avoid future delays?

Structural strategies look at how the structure of the organization is helping or hindering the organization. The examine issues such as span of control and reporting relationships.

235

Differences between andragogy and pedagogy

- Self-concept (self-directed)
- Experience (life experience becomes resource for learning)
- Readiness to learn (social roles)
- Orientation to learning (immediate applicability, problem-focused)
- Motivation to learn (internal motivation)

236

Adult Learning Principles

- Focuses on "real world" issues
- Applies to their lives and jobs
- Meets their goals and expectations
- Allows for debate and challenge of ideas
- Encourages an exchange of ideas and opinions
- Meets a current need

237

Three factors of trainability

- Readiness to learn and motivation
- Level of ability
- Perception of the work environment

238

Obstacles to adult learning

- Low tolerance for change
- Lack of trust
- Peer group pressure

239

Understanding your own learning style will help you better:

- Solve problems
- Work in teams
- Manage conflicts
- Make carer choices
- Negotiate relationships

240

Three learning styles

- Visual learners
- Auditory learners
- Kinesthetic learners

241

Retention rate vs degree (type) of participation

Lowest to highest retention level
- Lecture
- Reading
- Demonstration
- Discussion
- Practice by doing
- Immediate use of learning

242

Learning cureves

- Decreasing returns
- Increasing returns
- S-Shaped curve
- Plateau curve

243

This type of learning curve occurs when the amount of learning or skill level increases rapidly at first and then the rate of improvement slows or is complete.

Decreasing returns

(ex. an employee learns how to accurately complete all sections of a new department form)

244

This type of leaning curve is most common when a person is learning something completely new. The beginning of the curve is slow while the basics are being learned; then performance takes off as skills and knowledge are acquired.

Increasing returns

)ex. learning new language)

245

This type of curve is a combination of increasing and decreasing returns. There is a presupposition that the individual is learning a difficult task that also requires specific insight.

S-Shaped curve

(ex. after learning a brand new machine employee is asked to turn our a product variation using the same machine.)

246

With this type of curve, the learning is fast at first, but then it flattens out and there is no apparent progress.

Plateau curve

(ex. an employee learned all knowledge of product lines and is regularly meeting sales-quotas)

247

Ability to recall specific facts

Knowledge

248

Bloom's taxonomy (principles of classification) six levels of cognitive learning:

- knowledge (ability to recall specific facts)
- comprehension (ability to translate or interpret information)
- application (ability to use learned information in a new situation)
- analysis (ability to break down individual information and explain how they work together)
- synthesis (ability to trouble-shoot and respond to new situations)
- evaluation (highest level of learning, and ability to make judgements)

249

Theories of motivation (6):

- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory
- McClelland's Theory X and Theory Y
- Vroom's Expectancy Theory
- Adams' Equity Theory
- Skinner's Reinforcement Theory

250

Maslow's five basic human needs, arranged in a hierarchy

- Basic physiological needs (air, food, drink, shelter, sex)
- Safety and security (freedom from war, working condition, pay)
- Belonging and love (family, friends, clients, co-workers, groups)
- Esteem (self and others: approval, and recognition)
- Self-actualization (education, religion, personal growth, creativity)

251

Crucial points of Maslow's theory

- Needs are arranged in a hierarchy
- A lower level need to be satisfied in order for a higher-level need to emerge
- no need is every totally satisfied
- the purpose is to recognize and identify individual current needs to accordingly motivate behavior

252

Herberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Herberg's theory of work motivation concludes that employees have two different categories of needs that are essentially independent of each other:
- Extrinsic Hygiene Factors
- Intrinsic Motivational Factors

253

Examples of these factors are: pay, working conditions, relationship with supervision and coworkers

Extrinsic Hygiene Factors in Herzberg's Motivational-Hygiene Theory

254

Examples of these motivational factors are personal growth, recognition, achievement.

Intrinsic Motivational Factors in Herzberg's Motivational-Hygiene Theory

255

This type of motivational theory is based on studies that some people have an intense need to achieve while others do not.

McClelland's Theory

256

According to McClellen's Theory high achievers:

- Set moderately difficult but potentially achievable goals
- Prefer to work on a problem rather than leave the outcome to chance
- Seem to be more concerned with personal achievements than with the rewards of success
- Seek situation in which they get concrete feedback on how well they are doing with regard to their work.

257

Three motivational needs according to McClelland's Theory

- Achievement (drive to succeed)
- Power (drive to direct and control)
- Affiliation (drive to be liked)

258

McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y

Based on two approaches to motivating employees: one labels Theory Y (autonomy or participative style) and one labeled Theory X (rigid control or authoritative style)

259

This motivational theory asserts that employees in an organization will be motivated when they believe that effort will yield better job performance and that better job performance will lead to rewards.

Vroom's Expectancy Theory

260

Three factors according to Vroom's Expectancy Theory

- Expectancy (perceived effort Influences performance)
- Instrumentality (Belief that specific action leads to specific outcome)
- Valence (perceived value of rewards)

261

This type of theory is based on the belief that people want to be treated fairly. Thus, the individuals compare themselves to other people to see if their treatment is equitable.

Adam's Equity Theory

262

This type of Motivational Theory occurs when behavior provides employees with immediate knowledge of the results of their behavior. Desired behavior is recognized and rewarded ; undesired behavior is ignored or punished.

Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory.

263

Four intervention strategies according to Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory

- Positive Reinforcement
- Negative Reinforcement
- Punishment
- Extinction

264

Involves giving a person a desired reward to attain desired behavior and/or encourage its repetition.

Positive reinforcement

265

Involves avoiding an undesirable consequence by giving the person a reward when a desired response is exhibited.

Negative Reinforcement

266

Results in a decrease in the undesirable behavior because the response causes something negative to occur.

Punishment

267

Involves no response; when behavior is not reinforced (positively, negatively, or via punishment), the behavior will diminish and eventually become nonexistent.

Extinction

268

Type of positive reinforcers such as salary increase, gifts, and bonuses used to motivate employees

Contrived reinforcers

269

Type of positive reinforcers, such as attention, recognition, praise, and job performance feedback.

Natural reinforcers.

270

Give reinforcer after specific time passes; ex. weekly or monthly paychecks

Fixed interval

271

Give reinforcer after specific number of responses; ex: piece-rate pay or sales commissios

Fixed ratio

272

Give reinforcer at random times; ex: unscheduled positive comments form a supervisor

Variable interval

273

Give reinforcer after a random number of responses; ex: random checks with praise for meeting production goals

Variable ratio

274

Motivational theories are the basis for:

- Positive reinforcement
- Design or nature of work (intrinsic reward)
- Work environment (coworkers, corporate culture, work relations)
- Goal setting
- Formal extrinsic rewards
- Pay-for-performance systems

275

According to Maslow, which of the follwoing is an exmple of an esteem need?
a.) Opportunities for growth
b.) Base salary
c.) Effective work team
d.) Recognition

d.) recognition

276

What does ADDIE stand for?

A = Need assessment
D = Program design
D = Program development
I = Implementation of programs
E = Evaluation

277

In this phase in the ADDIE model data is collected to identify gaps between actual and desired organizational performance; then specific training objectives are established to address the training needs.

Assessment.

278

Purpose of assessment in ADDIE model

- Identify needs
- Find performance gaps
- Identify programs and target audience
- Form basis for evaluation

279

In this phase of the needs assessment of ADDIE model initial decisions regarding course content, course goals and objectives, delivery methods, and implementation strategies are made.

Design

280

In this phase of needs assessment of ADDIE model, materials are created, purchased, and/or modified to meet the stated objectives.

Development

281

In this phase of needs assessment of ADDIE model the program is delivered to the target audience. This phase includes pilot programs, revisions to content, participant scheduling and preparing the learning environment.

Implementation

282

This phase of needs assessment of ADDIE model consists of comparing the program results to the established objectives to determine whether the original needs were met.

Evaluation

283

First phase in the instructional design process that governs the development of programs.

Needs assessment (also called a needs analysis)

284

A needs assessment can be used to identify:

- Organization's goals (needs)
- Performance gaps
- programs and target audience
- content based on fact and not intuition
- parameters for cost-effective programs

285

Needs Assessment levels

- Organizational
- Task
- Individual

286

In the needs assessment ADDIE model, this level identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) employees will need in the future.

Organizational assessment level

287

This level of needs assessment of ADDIE model compares job requirements with employees knowledge and skills to identify areas needing improvement.

Task assessment level

288

This level of needs assessment of ADDIE model focuses on individual employees and how they perform their jobs, usually determined through performance reviews.

Individual assessment level

289

This level of needs assessment of ADDIE model measures where is training needed in the organization, and what are the conditions under which training will be conducted.

Organizational assessment level

290

This level of needs assessment of ADDIE model measures what need to be taught, and what must be done to perform the job effectively.

Task assessment level

291

This level of needs assessment of ADDIE model measures who should be trained, and what kind of training do they need.

Individual assessment level.

292

Five steps in the ADDIE Model Needs Assessment process

1. Gather data
2. Determine training needs
3. Propose solutions
4. Calculate potential cost
5. Implement the training

293

Characteristics of Needs Assessment Surveys/Questionnaires Method of the ADDIE Model

- May be in the form of surveys or polls of a random or stratified sample or an entire population
- Can use a variety of question formats: open-ended, projective, forced-choice, priority-ranking

294

Advantages of Needs Assessment Surveys/Questionnaires method of the ADDIE Model

- Can reach a large number of people in a short time
- Are inexpensive
- Give opportunity of response without fear of retaliation
- Yield data that is easily summarized and reported

295

Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Surveys/Questionnaires Method of the ADDIE Model

- Make little provision for free response
- Required substantial time for development of effective survey or questionnaire
- Do not effectively get at causes of problems or possible solutions

296

Characteristics of Needs Assessment Interviews Method of the ADDIE Model

- Can be formal or casual; structured or unstructured
- May be used with a representative sample or whole group
- Can be done in person, by phone, at the work site, or away from it

297

Advantages of Needs Assessment Interviews Method of the ADDIE Model

- Uncover attitudes, causes of problems, possible solutions
- Gather feedback; yield of data is rich
- Allow for spontaneous feedback

298

Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Interviews Method of the ADDIE Model

- Are usually time-consuming
- Can be difficult to analyze and quantify results
- Need a skillful interviewer who can generate data without making interviewee self-conscious or suspicious

299

Characteristics of Performance Appraisals Method in Needs Assessment of the ADDIE Model

- May be conducted informally or systematically
- Conducted by manager; appraisal developed by HR
- Should be conducted on a regular basis ad separately fro merit discussions

300

Advantages of Performance Appraisals Method of Needs Assessment of the ADDIE Model

- Indicate strengths and weaknesses in skills and identify training and development needs
- Can also point out candidates for merit raises or promotions

301

Disadvantages of Performance Appraisals Method of Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Can be costly to develop and implement and process results
- May enable managers to manipulate ratings to justify a pay raise
- May invalidate appraisal because of supervisor bias
- May be prohibited for union employees

302

Characteristics of Observations Method of Needs Assessment of the ADDIE Model

- Can be technical, functional, or behavioral
- Can yield qualitative /Quantitive feedback
- May be unstructured

303

Advantages of Observations Method of Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Minimize interruption of routine work flow or group activity
- Generate real-life data

304

Disadvantages of the Observations Method of the Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Require a highly skilled observer with process and content knowledge
- Allow data collection only in the work setting
- May cause "spied on" feeling

305

Characteristics of the Tests method of the Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Can be functionally oriented to test board, staff, or committee member's understanding
- Can be administered in monitored setting or "take home"

306

Advantages of the Tests method of the Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Can determine deficiencies in knowledge, skills, or attitudes
- Easily quantifiable and comparable

307

Disadvantages of the Tests Method of Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Must be constructed for audience, and validity can be questionable
- Don't indicate if measured knowledge and skills are being used on the job

308

Characteristics of Assessment Centers method of Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- For management development
- Require participants to complete exercises to determine strengths/areas for development
- Assess potential by having people work in simulated management situations

309

Advantages of Assessment Centers method of Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Can provide early identification of people with advancement potential
- More accurate than "intuition."
- Reduce bias and increase objectivity in selection process

310

Disadvantages of Assessment Centers method of Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Selecting people to be included in high-potential process difficult
- Time-consuming and costly to administer
- May be used to diagnose developmental needs rather than high potential

311

Characteristics of Focus groups/group discussions method of Needs Analysis in the ADDIE Model

- Can be formal or informal
- Widely used method
- Can be focused on a specific problem, goal, task, or theme

312

Advantages of Focus groups/group discussions method of Needs Analysis in the ADDIE Model

- Interaction between viewpoints
- Enhance buy-in; consensus
- Group becomes better analyzers and problem solvers

313

Disadvantages of Focus groups/group discussions method of Needs Analysis in the ADDIE Model

- Are time-consuming for both consultants and group members
- Can produce data that is difficult to quantify

314

Characteristics of Document Reviews method of Needs Analysis in the ADDIE Model

- Organizational charts, planning documents, policy manuals, audits, and budget reports
- Include employee record (grievances, etc.)
- Also include meeting minutes, programs reports, and memos

315

Advantages of Document Reviews method of Needs Analysis in the ADDIE Model

- Provide clues to trouble spots
- Provide objective evidence of results
- Easily collected / compiled

316

Disadvantages of Document Reviews method of Needs Analysis in the ADDIE Model

- Often do not indicate causes of problems or solutions
- Reflect past rather than current situation
- Must be interpreted by skilled data analysts

317

Characteristics of Advisor Committees method of Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Secure information from people who know the training needs of particular group
- Supply data gathered form consultants by using techniques such as interviews

318

Advantages of Advisor Committees method of Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Simple, inexpensive
- Input of those with personal views of group's needs
- Strengthen communication

319

Disadvantages of Advisor Committees method of Needs Assessment in the ADDIE Model

- Carry biased organizational perspective
- May not represent complete picture because information is from group that is not representative of the target audience.

320

Potential costs of training of Needs Assessment in ADDIE Module

- Trainer's and Trainee's salary or wage
- Materials, supplies for training, equipment costs
- Consultant's or contractor's services, legal and administrative help
- Living expense, etc.
- Facilities costs
- Lost production (opportunity cost)
- Development costs
- Postage, Data maintenance

321

Potential Savings/ Benefits of training in Needs Assessment of the ADDIE Model

- Reduction in errors, turnovers, required supervision
- Increase in production, advancement opportunities, ability to perform more jobs, motivation, customer satisfaction, organizational competencies

322

In the Design aspect of the ADDIE Module, design consits of:

- Composing goals
- Objectives
- Target audience
- Instructional designer (in house or off-the-shelf)

323

Three components of the goal in the design aspect of the ADDIE Module

- Who is the training for?
- What is the training about?
- Why is the training being conducted?

324

Purpose of the objectives in the design aspect of the ADDIE Module

- Provide a focus for design
- Define what should be known at the end of the training
- Measure training effectiveness

325

Words to be avoided when writing an obective

- "understand"
- "learn about"

326

Words to be used when writing an objective

- "identify"
- "list"
- "describe"
- "define"
- "operate"
- "compare"

327

Acronym for composing training objectives

S Specific
M Measurable
A Attainable
R Realistic
T Timely

328

What does acronym SMART stand for in the SMART Model for composing training objectives

Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Realistic
Timely

329

When defining target audience in the design aspect of the ADDIE Module, what factors should be considered.

- Aptitude (one's ability to learn information or acquire a skill)
- Prior knowledge and skills
- Attitudes and perceptions

330

Major factor in selecting an Instructional Designer in the Design aspect of the ADDIE Module

Company size and structure

331

Two options when selecting a training program in the Selecting an Instructional Designer of the Design in the ADDIE Model

- In-House
- Off-the-Shelf

332

Advantages of the In-House option training program in the Selecting an Instructional Designer of the Design aspect in the ADDIE Model

- Knowledge of organizational culture is useful
- Learning objectives can be tailored to specific needs
- Management may buy in more quickly; trust has already been developed

333

Disadvantages of the In-House option training program in the Selecting an Instructional Designer of the Design aspect in the ADDIE Model

- Development time may be lengthy
- Training staff often already overloaded with administrative duties
- Expertise needed is often no on staff
- Assumption that experts are always "somewhere else"

334

Advantages of the Off-the-Shelf option training program in the Selecting an Instructional Designer of the Design aspect in the ADDIE Model

- Training is immediately available
- Developer's expertise is usually available to organization to assist in tailoring the product to meet specific needs
- It is often less expensive than developing in-house programs

335

Disadvantages of the Off-the-Shelf option training program in the Selecting an Instructional Designer of the Design aspect in the ADDIE Model

- Training doesn't always target specific needs
- There is usually a need for orientation to assist in understanding the corporate culture
- It may not be possible to truly customize the product
- It can sometimes be expensive

336

Skills training categories in the Development aspect of the Addie Module

- Basic or remedial
- Technical
- Sales
- Interpersonal
- Quality
- New Technology

337

Other Training Programs than Skills Training in the Design aspect of the ADDIE Module

- Executive training
- Personal development
- Wellness training
- Diversity training
- Violence in the workplace
- Board of directors' training on ethics
- Harassment or discrimination prevention

338

Consider the following questions in the Design phase of the ADDIE model.

- What are the program learning objectives
- What are the cost limitations
- What is the program time frame
- What equipment is available
- Who is the audience

339

Different training approaches in the Design phase of the ADDIE model.

- Classroom training
- Self-directed study
- E-Learning (Synchronous or asynchronous)
- Blended learning
- On-The-Job training
- Vestibule training

340

Face-to-face classroom learning methods in the Design phase of the ADDIE model.

- Presentation
- Case studies
- Reading
- Demonstration
- Structures exercise
- Group discussions
- Simulations
- Self-directed study

341

This classroom training method in the Design phase of the ADDIE model is best used when information must be delivered to a large group, possibly at various geographical locations.

Presentation

342

This classroom training method in the Design phase of the ADDIE model is best used when participants will need to immediately apply the knowledge on the job.

Case study

343

This classroom training method in the Design phase of the ADDIE model is best used when quite reflection is needed to process a large amount of new information.

Reading

344

This classroom training method in the Design phase of the ADDIE model is best used when new, detailed information is being presented.

Demonstration

345

This classroom training method in the Design phase of the ADDIE model is best used when practice is needed to develop new skills.

Structured exercise

346

This classroom training method in the Design phase of the ADDIE model is best used when participants will benefit from the exchange of information, experience, and knowledge with their peers.

Group discussion

347

This classroom training method in the Design phase of the ADDIE model is best used when participants need to learn information and process in a risk-free environment and need to come up to speed quickly.

Simulation

348

Disadvantages of presentation classroom training method in the Design phase of the ADDIE model.

- no longer than 20 minutes
- does not allow for two-way communication
- does not allow for differences in learning styles

349

Advantages of self-directed study in the training methods of the Design phase of ADDIE model.

- flexible, self-paced learning
- opportunities for testing and retesting
- can focus on certain areas
- cost-effective and used in many settings

350

Disadvantages of self-directed study in the training methods of the Design phase of ADDIE model.

- Learners must be highly motivated and organized or the effort ca fail
- Little direct feedback unless online feedback is built in.
- Self- directed learners sometimes skip over important concepts
- May be expensive to develop thorough content

351

Two types of E-learning method in the training methods of the Design phase in the ADDIE model.

- Synchronous
- Asynchronous

352

E-learning Advantages in the training method of the Design phase in ADDIE model.

- Distributes information widely and quickly to many employees
- Assists globalization efforts through virtual communication
- Keeps information consistent and current
- Permits schedule flexibility for employees
- Uses synchronous or asynchronous methods
- Permits practice and repeat opportunities
- Provides opportunities for simulation and higher-level learning
- Shows cos efficiencies compared to face-to-face sessions

353

E-learning disadvantages in the training method of the Design phase in ADDIE model.

- Technology constraints affect multimedia options and learner access
- security concerns with intellectual property and electronic security
- Developers and technical staff need to monitor program
- High dropout rate for e-learning programs
- Learner anxiety for some; online support needed
- More effort to design and provide meaningful interactions
- A challenge to make activities meaningful
- Development and other start up costs can be high

354

Advantages of Blended learning method in the design phase of ADDIE model.

- Multiple methods to meet learning objectives
- Serves the global workforce
- Appeals to different learning styles
- Facilitates independent and collaborated learning activities
- Scheduling and facility flexibility
- Lower delivery costs than face-to-face options alone
- More options for facilitators - SMEs, peers, etc.
- Array of possibilities for interaction and enhanced learning

355

Disadvantages of Blended learning method in the design phase of ADDIE model.

- Methods must be carefully chosen based on strategic objectives
- Technology and security constraints
- Participants must be organized and motivated
- Encouragement and online help
- Costs of all strategies
- More coordination is necessary; must determine who is accountable
- Takes more time to develop all aspects than a singe strategy

356

Advantages of on-the-job learning method in the design phase of ADDIE model.

- Relevant to the job and "just in time"
- Demonstrations / simulations in the real environment
- Opportunities for immediate feedback
- Pertinent for individuals or small groups

357

Disadvantages of on-the-job learning method in the design phase of ADDIE model.

- May be difficult to schedule in the work settings
- Potential safety issues in the real environment
- May be distracting to coworkers
- Subject matter or process experts need to be available to demonstrate and critique

358

Primary tasks of implementation phase in the ADDIE model.

- Utilizing pilot programs
- Revising content
- Scheduling the program
- Announcing and implementing the program

359

Most visible phase of the ADDIE model.

Implementation

360

Most beneficial step in implementing an HRD program.

Pilot program

361

Different types of facilitators in the implementation phase of the ADDIE model.

- Training expert
- Subject matter expert (SME)
- Technical expert
- Consultant
- Communications expert

362

Training expert strengths in the implementation phase of the ADDIE model.

- Versed in adult learning and motivation concepts
- Experienced in teaching, facilitation techniques, and group processes.
- Deploys active learning exercises and strategies
- Understands workplace dynamics

363

Subject Matter Expert (SME) strengths in the implementation phase of the ADDIE model.

- Expert in program content
- Able to answer questions, conduct problem-solving exercises, and relate practical experience

364

Technical expert strengths in the implementation phase of the ADDIE model.

- Technical expertise in areas such as systems, processes, and information technology
- Can demonstrate technology, lead simulations, problem-solve, and give immediate feedback

365

Consultant strengths in the implementation phase of the ADDIE model.

- Uses consultative skills
- Understands the business and develop relationships through analytical and problem-solving skills
- Enhances learning by observing, describing, and coaching

366

Communications expert strengths in the implementation phase of the ADDIE model.

- Exhibits strong communication skills through active listening, summarizing, and refocusing participants.
- Familiar with group process techniques and experienced facilitator of meetings, training, negotiation process, etc.

367

Tips for Trainers

- Listen and acknowledge ideas
- Praise people as they learn
- Direct questions back to the audience
- Ask for examples from participants
- Share your experience
- Admit to not knowing an answer
- Avoid win-lose judgments
- Show you enjoy helping people learn
- Spend additional time if necessary
- Focus on participant's concerns
- Express confidence in participants
- Create positive reinforcement
- Use participant's words on flip charts

368

Different types of seating arrangements in scheduling the Program process of the Implementation in ADDIE model.

- Classroom / theater
- Banquet
- U Shape
- Circle
- Chevron
- Rectangle

369

Advantages of Classroom/Theater type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Suited for large groups
- Great for presentations

370

Disadvantages of Classroom/Theater type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Low interaction
- May be hard to hear or see facilitator

371

Advantages of Banquet type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Suited for large groups
- Can easily be broken into small groups for interaction

372

Disadvantages of Banquet type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Some participants may be seated with their back to the facilitator

373

Advantages of U Shape type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Good for small interactive groups

374

Disadvantages of U Shape type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Not suitable for large groups

375

Advantages of Circle type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Good for small interactive groups

376

Disadvantages of Circle type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Not suitable for large groups

377

Advantages of Chevron type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Suited for large groups
- Great setup for PC-based training

378

Disadvantages of Chevron type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Easy for participants to feel disconnected if sitting at PC terminals

379

Advantages of Rectangle type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Good for small interactive groups

380

Disadvantages of Rectangle type of seating arrangement in the implementation phase of ADDIE model.

- Not suitable for large groups

381

Purpose of Training Evaluation

Determine or identify:
- If a program achieved its objectives
- Strengths and weaknesses
- Cost-benefit ratio, break-even analysis, and return on investment
- Which participants benefited the most from the training
- If the program was appropriate
- informational database

382

Training Barriers

- Interference from work environment
- Non-supportive culture
- Impractical or irrelevant training
- Discomfort with change
- Separation from inspired or support of the facilitator
- Poorly defined / delivered training
- Pressure from peers to resist training
- Newly learned behaviors are not valued by managers

383

Kirkpatrick's training evaluation levels

Level 1. Reaction (how participant felt about the training)
Level 2. Learning (how participant increased or otherwise changed their knowledge, skills, and attitudes)
Level 3. Behavior (how participants changed their behavior on the job)
Level 4. Results (how the program affected the organizational goals)

384

Needs assessments may not be conducted in organizations because
a.) gaps between employees' skills and knowledge are already known
b.) managers may prefer action over research
c.) there is no existing job description
d.) knowledge of what other organizations are doing precludes a costly study

b.) Manager may prefer action over research
Other reasons may include:
- lack of support
- time-consuming
- difficult to summarize findings
- demands from the senior management take precedence
- Don't know how

385

Which level is a needs assessment targeting when measuring what skills are required to perform a job effectively?
a.) Individual
b.) Task
c.) Organizational
d.) Strategic

b.) Task

Individual assessment level measures who should be trained, and what kind of training do they need.

Organizational assessment level measures where is training needed in the organization, and what are the conditions under which training will be conducted.

There is no strategic level of needs assessment.

386

To determine the cost of training per participant, the toal cost of training is divided by which of the following?
a.) Number of people actually trained
b.) Percentage increase in production
c.) Percentage decrease in turnover
d.) Number of people selected for training

a.) Cost per trainee = total cost of training / Number of people trained

387

Which of the following should HR consider when defining the target audience for a training program?
a.) Potential productivity gains
b.) Incentives for completing the training
c.) Peer group pressure
d.) Knowledge and skill of participants

d.) Knowledge and skill of participants

the following factors must also be considered when designing the training:
- Aptitude of the participants
- Attitudes ad perceptions
- KSA competencies

388

Which of the following is an advantage of conducting a pilot program?
a.) It allows you to evaluate the sequencing of content
b.) Participants can be put at ease concerning the training
c.) it provides the instructional designer with more time to design the program
d. ) It creates interest from key stakeholders

a.) It allows you to evaluate the sequencing of content

Other advantages of conducting a pilot program:
- Measure the effectiveness of the chosen learning activities
- Assess the time allotted
- Examine the physical space in which the program will occur

389

Which of the following is a primary advantage of conducting training off-site?
a.) It will be easier to diagnose individual learning needs
b.) Participants will know exactly when the training will start and end
c.) A property selected off-site will be more conductive to effective training
d.) It will be easier to evaluate the extent to which the training objectives are achieved

c.) A property selected off-site will be more conductive to effective training

Off-site training is often selected for multi-day programs.

390

Which of the following evaluation methods provide the MOST valuable measurement information?
a.) Reaction
b.) Learning
c.) Behavior
d.) Results

d.) Results

from highest to lowest: Results, Behavior, Learning, Reaction

391

Which of the following evaluation methods provide the MOST frequency of use?
a.) Reaction
b.) Learning
c.) Behavior
d.) Results

a.) Reaction

from highest to lowest: Reaction, Learning, Behavior, Results

392

Which of the following evaluation methods provide the LEAST valuable measurement information?
a.) Reaction
b.) Learning
c.) Behavior
d.) Results

a.) Reaction

393

Which of the following evaluation methods provide the greatest ease of use?
a.) Reaction
b.) Learning
c.) Behavior
d.) Results

a.) reaction

394

The best way for managers to measure observable changes in behavior is through the use of
a.) pre-/post-measures
b.) performance tests
c.) performance appraisals
d.) questionnaires

b.) performance tests

395

What is the goal of the Talent Management?

Increase workplace productivity

396

Factors affecting talent management

- Economy and job market
- Demographic trends and likely labor shortage
- Increasing reliance on contingent workers
- Baby boomer retirements
- Workforce diversity
- Technological growth and change
- Demand for knowledge worers
- Competition for talent resources

397

Orientation gives new employees initial exposure to three different types of information:

- Organizational information
- Policies, procedures, and benefits
- Work context

398

Successful orientation programs include the following factors:

- Active rather than passive participation by new employees
- Orientation spread out over a period of time
- Use of orientation checklists
- Avoidance of information overload

399

On-boarding promotes assimilation into:

- Organizational culture and norms
- Specific departments and functions
- Job expectations and job resources
- Support systems (e.g. mentoring, work/life balance)

400

Two processes of career development.

- Career planning

- Career management

401

Career development occurs when.....

... the needs of the organization (Career Management) and the individual (Career Planning) coincide.

402

Four Roles in Managing Career Development:

- Individual
- Manager
- HR professional
- Organizational Leaders

403

Four roles managers should perform in order to serve their employees in their career development.

- Coach (listens, clarifies, probes, defines career concerns)
- Appraiser ( gives feed back, clarifies performance standards and job responsibilities)
- Adviser ( generates options, helps set goals, gives advice, makes recommendations)
- Referral agent (consults with employees on action plans and links them to available organizational resources)

404

When designing a career path, HR must:

- Complete a job analysis to determine the performance requirements
- Develop a natural jobs progression
- Communicate potential career paths to employees
- Obtain / update skill inventory database (experience, education, etc.)
- Determine training and development needs of employees

405

Ways Organizational Leaders might be involved in career development:

- Communicating organization's goals so that career management plans are aligned with organization's systems and needs
- Linking career development to the organization's vision and mission
- Placing value on/ rewarding managers who help with career planning
- Participate in career development meetings
- Require annual review of management planning versus actual actions taken

406

Stages in carer development model.

Stage 1. Occupational preparation
Stage 2. Organizational entry
Stage 3. Early career establishment and achievement
Stage 4. Mid career
Stage 5. Late career

407

Major tasks of Stage 1 (occupational preparation) in career development model.

- Develop occupational self-image
- Assess alternative occupations
- Develop initial occupational choice
- Pursue necessary education

408

Major tasks of Stage 2 (Occupational Entry) in career development model.

- Obtain job offers form desired organizations
- Select appropriate offer

409

Major tasks of Stage 3 (Early Career Establishment and Achievement) in career development model.

- Learn job
- Learn organizational rules and norms
- Fit into chosen occupation and organization
- Increase competence
- Pursue career dream

410

Major tasks of Stage 4 (Mid Career) in career development model.

- Reappraise early career plans
- Reaffirm or modify career dream
- Make choices appropriate to middle adult years
- Remain productive in work

411

Major tasks of Stage 5 (Late Career) in career development model.

- Remain productive in work
- Maintain self-esteem
- Prepare for effective retirement
- May contribute to career development of others at earlier stages

412

Two types of tools/activities in Career Development program

- self-assessment tools
- individual coaching/counseling

413

In career development program, the self-assessment should answer the following questions about a person's career.

- Where am I today?
- Where do I want to be?
- What gaps do I need to fill to get there?

414

Types of employee self-assessment tools.

- self-study workbook with exercises
- web-based planning tools
- structural career planning workshops

415

Involves one-on-one discussions between the employee and an experienced individual (HR, a supervisor, a hired consultant)

Individual coaching/counseling

416

Types of individual coaching and counseling activities.

- Mentoring
- Internal coaching
- External coaching
- Executive coaching

417

Internal coaching between a supervisor and an employee may focus on:

- employee's new skill or interest
- employee's feedback
- employee's interest in a change in the organization
- employee's a poor job fit
- employee's desire for development opportunities

418

External coaching, available to professional, exempt, and/or high-potential employees and done in a private with a trained or certified consultant/coach, would typically include:

- Individual and environment assessment
- Identifying desired outcome
- Setting personal and professional goals and objectives
- Attaining commitment along the way
- Generating accountability
- Celebrating accomplishments

419

In an executive coaching, performed by a third-party vendor in support of managers, the employee:

- Identifies strengths and weaknesses
- Chooses specific results the coaching will help produce
- Focuses on what is tho be accomplished
- Learns to produce results reliably and with less effort
- Develops and enhances communication skills
- Adopts effective management practices

420

One of the aspects of talent management; These activities provide employees with opportunities to learn new ideas and skills, thus preparing them for future positions and challenges.

Employee development

421

Employee development programs

- College/ University and continuing education
- Committee/ Team Participation
- Apprenticeship
- Job rotation
- Job Enlargement
- Job Enrichment
- Internal mobility
- Dual Career Ladders

422

This type of Employee Development Program usually involves tuition reimbursement.

College/ University and Continuing Education

423

This type of Employee Development Program exposes employees to group decision making and collaborative processes, other areas of the organization, and outside agencies.

Committee / Team Participation

424

Who regulates the U.S. apprenticeship system.

- Bureau of Apprenticeship and training (BAT)

- U.S. Department of Labor

425

The rules on this type of Employee Development Program can be found at 29 CFR 520; also some of the jobs performed under this program may be paid a "sub-minimum wage" under federal law.

Apprenticeship

426

Different tasks under the same jobs

Job enlargement

427

Increases the depth of a job by adding responsibilities.

Job enrichment

428

An example of one of employee development programs:
A receptionist who greets visitors and answers the phones as his primary job responsibilities may be asked to sort the mail, maintain office supplies, and perform data entry in an effort to stay busy and be productive between visitors and phone calls.

Job enlargement

429

This is an example of what type of employee development program:
An assembly-line worker may take on some quasi-supervisory responsibilities such as ensuring that materials or parts are fully stocked to keep the line running and that employees are at their workstations when needed.

Job enrichment

430

This is an example of which type of employee development program?
A factory employee may work one day in assembly and then work the next day in inspection.

Job rotation

431

This type of employee development program involves a number of activities, including promotions, demotions, relocation, and transfers.

Internal Mobility

432

Related to the importance of strategic alignment, new positions should be created only in response to the organization's mission and strategic objectives. HR must be diligent to guard against "creeping carer paths" (creating jobs). Arbitrary or artificial career paths can lead to unrealistic expectations and unnecessary organizational structure and costs.

Promotions in the Internal Mobility type of career development.

433

Occurs when employees have been advanced beyond their skills and capabilities, and they should be given the opportunity to move back or laterally to positions that are geared to their talents.

Demotions

434

Demotions are usually the results of:

- Staff reductions/consolidations.reorganizations
- An attempt to move an under-qualified employee to a more suitable position
- An employee's request

435

Moving employees to another geographic location, domestically or internationally.

Relocation

436

Factors to consider when managing employee relocation.

- How the organization benefits
- Effect on employee morale and productivity
- The costs, including moving costs and possible adjustments in compensation and other allowances
- Employment opportunities for the spouse
- Need for orientation programs to adjust employees and their families to the new location

437

Shifting employees in jobs to match their abilities and the organization's staffing needs.

Transfers

438

Benefits of job transfers

- helps organizations balance staffing
- facilitate career development
- reduce the need for terminations

439

Identify meaningful career paths for people who are not interested in traditional management roles.

Dual-Ladder Programs

440

A talent management strategy to help identify and foster the development of high-potential employees.

Succession Planning / Replacement Planning

441

A successful Succession Planning contains the following:

- Managerial position requirements
- Succession requirements
- Candidate data
- Appraisal of performance and development needs

442

A successful succession plan provides the following:

- Individual's aspirations and related development plans
- Planned broadening experiences
- Summaries of candidate availability
- Tentative plans for meeting shortages or surpluses

443

Comparison of Replacement Planning and Succession Planning in the time frame variable.

Replacement Planning: 0-12 months
Succession Planning: 12-3 months

444

Comparison of Replacement Planning and Succession Planning in the "readiness" variable.

Replacement Planning: Best candidate available
Succession Planning: Candidate with the best development potential

445

Comparison of Replacement Planning and Succession Planning in the "commitment level" variable.

Replacement Planning: Designates a preferred replacement candidate

Succession Planning: Merely possibilities until vacancies occur

446

Comparison of Replacement Planning and Succession Planning in the "Planning focus" variable.

Replacement Planning: Vertical lines of succession within units or functions

Succession Planning: A pool of talented candidates with capabilities for several assignments.

447

Comparison of Replacement Planning and Succession Planning in the "Planning development" variable.

Replacement Planning: Usually informal, a status report on strengths and weaknesses.

Succession Planning: Specific plans and goals set for the individual

448

Comparison of Replacement Planning and Succession Planning in the "flexibility" variable.

Replacement Planning: Limited by plan structure; however, in practice has a great deal of flexibility.

Succession Planning: Flexible plans that are intended to promote development and thinking about alternatives.

449

Comparison of Replacement Planning and Succession Planning in the "plan basis" variable.

Replacement Planning: Each manager's best judgment based on observation and experience.

Succession Planning: The result of input and discussion among multiple managers.

450

Comparison of Replacement Planning and Succession Planning in the "evaluation" variable.

Replacement Planning: Observation of performance on the job over time demonstrated competence; progress through the unit.

Succession Planning: Multiple evaluations by different managers on different assignments; testing and broadening early in career.

451

Suggestions for fast-tracking.

- Develop competencies through on-the-job experiences
- Provide behavioral training
- Facilitate feedback on development progress
- Encourage self-management of the development process
- Provide executive coaches

452

Often provided as an alternative to layoffs, this type of program offer incentives to employees who meet length-of-service and/or age requirements to retire voluntarily.

Retirement / Transition Planning

453

Which of the following is the organization's responsibility in career management?
a.) Assess career options inside and outside the organization
b.) Design a career path that matches organizational goals
c.) Match organizational needs with individual abilities
d.) Identify personal abilities and interests

c.) Match organizational needs with individual abilities

other responsibilities are:
- Identify future organizational staffing needs
- Assess career strategies and training programs
- Develop career development programs (career paths and ladders)
- Provide career training, no-the-job development, and counseling

454

An employee who is reappraising her early career plans, modifying those plans, and maintaining her work productivity is in which stage of the career development model?

Mid Career

455

In executive coaching experience, the employee does all of the following except:
a.) develop communication skills
b.) learn to produce results
c.) identify strengths and weaknesses
d.) design a new self-performance appraisal

d.) design a new self-performance appraisal

In an executive coaching experience, the employee also may:
- Chose specific results the coaching will help produce
- Focuses on what is being accomplished
- Adopts effective management practices

456

Succession plans provide which of the following outputs?
a.) Summaries of candidate availability
b.) Candidate data
c.) Compensation data
d.) Position requirements

a. ) Summaries of candidate availability

In addition, a succession plan provide s the following:
- Individual's aspirations and related development plans
- Planned broadening experiences
- Tentative plans for meeting shortages or surpluses

457

An organization has defined a group of high-performing key managers in various departments. The organization has decided to provide special development for these individuals. What career development program is this organization implementing?

- Fast-track program

458

Which level of learner participation offers the best opportunity for retention?

a.) Reading
b.) Demonstration
c.) Immediate use
d.) Lecture

c.) Immediate use

Immediate use of learning provides a 90% or higher retention rate.

459

Which of the following factors has reinforced the need for talent management systems?

a.) Reduced competition for talented workers
b.) Decreased reliance on contingent workers
c.) Faltering economy
d.) Retirement of baby boomers

d.) Retirement of baby boomers

With the retirement of baby boomers, organizations must use talent management strategies to replace these workers and find ways to harness their institutional knowledge.

460

Which of the following is characteristic of an HRD program designed for adult learners?

a.) The instructor is seen as having all the answers.
b.) Learners may not have immediate use for training knowledge.
c.)Employees' learning is subject-focused.
d.) The debate and challenge of ideas is encouraged.

d.) The debate and challenge of ideas is encouraged.

In an environment focused on adult learners, the participants are resources to each other and bring a wealth of knowledge and experience. The instructor should encourage debate of ideas and create a participative and collaborative environment.

461

Which of the following learning activities would appeal primarily to an auditory learner?

a.) Lecture and review tapes
b.) Group activities and model building
c.) Video demonstrations and field trips
d.) Diagrams and illustrated handouts

a.) Lecture and review tapes

Auditory learners learn best by listening. They prefer to listen to lectures and talk things through. They often like to listen to audiotapes and will frequently record lectures. They also benefit from reading aloud.

462

Which of the following performance appraisal tools provides a quantitative rating for each employee and is the simplest to use?

a.) MBO
b.) Ranking
c.) Graphic scales
d.) Critical incidents

c.) Graphic scales

Graphic scales are the simplest quantitative tool. Participants are rated on key aspects of the job using a 1-5 scale. Space is provided for comments.

463

A warehouse distribution organization has been concentrating on coaching and developing its employees. The manager of the distribution department adjusts his leadership style to what is necessary for each employee, depending on the employee’s level of job development and maturity. The manager of the marketing department does not change his leadership style but rather changes the factors surrounding a situation to manage the marketing department employees. Which theory is the marketing manager exhibiting?

a.) Blake-Mouton's managerial theory
b.) Transformational leadership theory
c.) Hersey-Blanchard's situational theory
d.) Fiedler's contingency theory

d.) Fiedler's contingency theory

Fred Fiedler proposed that three factors determine the favorableness of the leadership environment: leader-member relations, task structure, and position power. The factors are identified from most important to least important. Together, they determine how favorable situations are for leaders.

464

Which of the following is an example of reinforcement according to a fixed ratio?

a.) Yearly review
b.) Occasional praise
c.) Monthly paycheck
d.) Sales commission

d.) Sales commission
A sales commission is a fixed-ratio reinforcer. The reinforcement is provided after a specific number of responses. A commission is linked to dollars sold, thus establishing a fixed ratio. A monthly paycheck or a yearly review is a fixed-interval reinforcer, given after a specific interval of time passes. Occasional praise is a variable-ratio reinforcer, given after a random number of responses.

465

The PRIMARY purpose of an organizational needs assessment is to

a.) develop a pool of talented employees that meet the organization's needs.
b.) identify skills that the organization needs today and in the future.
c.) determine what employees need to succeed in their current jobs.
d.) identify employees whose performance needs to be improved.

b.) identify skills that the organization needs today and in the future.
An organizational assessment helps companies to plan ahead and identify the key knowledge, skills, and abilities that employees will need as the organization and their jobs change. It also looks for ways that HRD programs can improve organizational performance. The purpose of an organizational assessment is to identify skills that are needed, not to develop a pool of talented employees.

466

A manager uses his skill with people to smooth over problems and to make his employees feel secure in their positions. According to the Blake-Mouton leadership styles, the manager's leadership style is referred to as

a.) high task, high people.
b.) high task, low people.
c.) low task, low people.
d.) low task, high people.

d.) low task, high people.
Managers who exhibit low task, high people leadership styles avoid using their authority because they fear that it will jeopardize their relationships. They try to create a supportive atmosphere and trust that employees will respond positively.

467

Which of the following is characteristic of the BEST training programs?

a.) They can be easily evaluated.
b.) They build in technology applications.
c.) They allow for transfer of training.
d.) They are inexpensive to deliver.

c.) They allow for transfer of training.
The best training programs ensure that knowledge and skills learned in the classroom will be used in the work environment. Regardless of the type of training program, transfer of learning should occur.

468

Which of the following are aimed at preparing for long-term future job responsibilities as well as increasing skills for performing an employee's current job?

a.) Knowledge activities
b.) Developmental activities
c.) Skills activities
d.) Training activities

b.) Developmental activities
Developmental activities have a long-term focus on preparing for future responsibilities while increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs. These activities are broader in scope than training activities.

469

Two Leadership Theries

- Trait Theories
- Behavioral Theories

470

In the Leadership Trait Theory, what five personal characteristics appear to be related to effective leadership.

- Intelligence
- Dominance
- Self-confidence
- High levels of energy and activity
- Task-relevant knowledge

471

Two Behavioral Dimensions of Leadership

- Consideration (employee-centered)

- Initiating structure (job-oriented)

472

In this behavioral dimension of Leadership, behavior is aimed at meeting the social and emotional needs of groups and individuals and helping group members and explaining decisions.

Consideration (employee-centered)

473

In this behavioral dimension of leadership, behavior is aimed at at careful supervision of work method and performance levels, and at clarifying roles and setting roles.

Initiating change (job-oriented)

474

This type of leadership theory focuses on how a person behaves, behavioral patterns, styles, and functions fulfilled by an individual. It also examines the impact of leadership on performance and satisfaction.

Behavioral Management Theory

475

Common Leadership practices of successful leaders:

- Challenging the process (seek challenge and take risks)
- Inspiring a shared vision (a desire to change, create)
- Enabling others to act (enlist support of others)
- modeling the way (lead by example)
- encouraging the (heart encourage the heart despite adversity and celebrate successes with the followers)

476

Obstacles to leadership development

- Slowly developing crisis
- Suppressive effects of large and complex organizations and communities
- Educational system and business rewards that value individual performance over teamwork
- Negative publicity over high visibility

477

This behavioral leadership theory uses two axes to describe leadership/management behavior of:
- Concern for people
- Concern for production

Blake-Mouton's theory

478

Four types of leaders (extremes) according to Blake-Mouton's behavioral leadership theory.

- Authoritarian Task managers
- Team leaders
- Country club managers
- Impoverished managers

479

What two axes does the Blake-Mouton Managerial Gird use to describe leadership / management behavior.

- concern for people
- concern for production

480

On the Blake-Mouton Grid, where does the Country Club managers score?

One on production
Nine on people

481

On the Blake-Mouton Grid, where does the Impoverished managers score?

One on production
One on people

"delegate and disappear" management style

482

On the Blake-Mouton Grid, where does the Authoritarian managers score?

Nine on production
One on people

strong on schedules, tend not to foster collaboration, "no questions asked" type managers

483

On the Blake-Mouton Grid, where does the Middle-of-the-road managers score?

Five on production
Five on people.

These type of managers are NOT at the level necessary for successful leadership.

484

This type of leadership theory matches leadership style to the situation.

Situational Leadership Theory

485

Two different Situational Leadership Theories.

Hersey-Blanchard's Theory
Fiedler's contingency theory

486

This Situational Leadership theory does not depict an ideal mode of behavior that is appropriate for all situations. It suggests that leadership style should be matched to the maturity of the employees.

Hersey-Blanchard's Theory

487

This situational leadership theory has two key aspects: task behavior and relationship behavior.

Hersey-Blanchard's Theory

488

This type of behavior in Hersey-Blanchard's Theory refers to the extent to which leaders are likely to organize and define the roles and activities of members of the group.

Task behavior

489

This type of behavior in the Hersey-Blanchard's Theory refers to the extent to which leaders are likely to maintain personal relationship with members of the group.

Relationship behavior.

490

Two parts of maturity in relation to a specific task in the Hersey-Blanchard's Theory.

- Psychological maturity
- Job maturity

491

This type of maturity in the Hersey-Blanchard's theory combines self-confidence, ability and readiness to accept responsibility.

Psychological maturity

492

This type of maturity in the Hersey-Blanchard's theory combines relevant skills and technical knowledge.

Job maturity

493

Four Leadership tasks based on employee's maturity according to Hersey-Blanchard's theory

- Delegating (for employees who need the least guidance)
- Participating with employees
- Selling ideas to employees
- Telling what to do (for employees who need the most guidance)

494

Which of the following are aimed at preparing for long-term future job responsibilities as well as increasing skills for performing an employee's current job?

a.) Knowledge activities
b.) Developmental activities
c.) Skills activities
d.) Training activities

b.) developmental activities

Developmental activities have a long-term focus on preparing for future responsibilities while increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs. These activities are broader in scope than training activities.

495

In SMART training objectives, S represents

a.) specifics of what the learner will accomplish.
b.) support the learner will need.
c.) skills the learner will develop.
d.) standards the learner will meet.

a.) specifics of what the learner will accomplish.
S represents the specific objectives that the learner hopes to accomplish.

496

The process by which an organization articulates its development requirements in order to accomplish its goals and objectives is called a/an

a.) ROI analysis.
b.) SWOT analysis.
c.) impact assessment.
d.) needs analysis.

d.) needs analysis.

A needs analysis (also called a needs assessment) is the first step in the ADDIE process model.Conducting a needs assessment should lead to the alignment of organizational and HRD goals.

497

A trainee comes late to training class and is not allowed to attend. This is an example of what type of behavioral reinforcement?

a.) Punishment
b.) Extinction
c.) Negative reinforcement
d.) Positive reinforcement

a.) Punishment

Punishment results in a decrease of negative behavior due to an undesirable consequence. If late attendees are denied access to training, they may learn to come on time.

498

Which of the following statements about Maslow's motivational theory is true?

a.) It is based on the belief that people want to be treated fairly.
b.) It identifies the key factors that lead to job dissatisfaction.
c.) It identifies the role of the leader in motivating employees.
d.) It recognizes the role of individual needs in motivating people.

d.) It recognizes the role of individual needs in motivating people.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs illustrates the importance of recognition and identification of individual needs for the purpose of motivating behavior. The hierarchy indicates that no need will ever be totally satisfied; thus, an opportunity for motivating an individual's behavior is always present.

499

An organization needs to implement a performance management system to accommodate new acquisitions. Which performance management system will avoid rater biases from the newly acquired managers?

a.) Ranking
b.) Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
c.) Critical incidents
d.) Management by objectives (MBO)

b.) Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)

BARS is a performance appraisal approach specifically designed to avoid the issues of category ranking systems. Each employee is rated against the position's behavioral anchors rather than against another employee's performance.

500

A supervisor assigns an employee to teach a new employee how to run a computer report. Which of the following levels of learning does the employee exhibit when teaching?

a.) Analysis
b.) Comprehension
c.) Synthesis
d.) Application

c.) Synthesis

At the synthesis level, an individual can be an effective trainer. The trainer should be able to respond to new situations and determine trouble-shooting techniques and solutions. For example, the trainer should be able to handle any problems encountered while running the report.

501

A talent management program will be LESS effective if it focuses mostly on

a.) recruitment strategies.
b.) training activities.
c.) short-term goals.
d.) retention goals.

c.) short-term goals.

Talent management requires an integrated approach to attracting, recruiting, developing, and retaining employees. It must include short- and long-term goals.

502

Salespeople are polled to determine their top training needs. The majority say they want to be able to identify key decision makers and their needs. Which of the following would work BEST for this group?

a.) Lecture
b.) Role plays
c.) Case studies
d.) Demonstration

c.) Case studies

Case studies give participants a chance to analyze sales situations and determine how best to approach each of the key decision makers and determine the needs of each. The case study format allows the salespeople to play an active role in their learning, share their account management tips, and learn from each other.

503

An HR professional wants to represent the percentage of turnover for each of the last five years. Which quality tool will be most effective for visualizing yearly turnover trends?

a.) Pareto chart
b.) Check sheet
c.) Histogram
d.) Control chart

c.) Histogram

A histogram uses a bar-graph chart to summarize key data. It works best for visualizing how change has occurred over time. The histogram makes it easy to see the data for each year and makes trends easy to spot.

504

According to the Hersey-Blanchard theory, which of the following is generally the MOST suitable situational leadership approach for entry-level employees?

a.) Low task, low relationship
b.) High task, high relationship
c.) High task, low relationship
d.) Low task, high relationship

c.) High task, low relationship
Entry-level employees require leadership that provides structure to project scheduling, methodologies, procedures, etc. This involvement requires a high task structure by the supervisor. However, because the new employee does not possess sufficient experience or insight into best practices, he/she cannot adequately participate in joint problem solving or decision making, thus the low relationship.

505

An OSHA-mandated seminar on safety was recently converted to an e-learning course and is available on the organization's intranet. The Web course consists of self-study units with accompanying quizzes and e-mail access to a subject matter expert. What is the PRIMARY benefit of this approach?

a.) The organization can track the training that each employee completes.
b.) Participants can complete the training when it is convenient for them.
c.) Employees have easy access to someone who can answer questions.
d.) Trainers can be eliminated, reducing salary costs.

b.) Participants can complete the training when it is convenient for them.
The most important benefit of e-learning is that participants can complete the course at their convenience, making it more likely that they will actually complete the training. While it is nice to have access to a subject matter expert and track training results (especially for mandated courses), it is most important that the training is actually completed.

506

Planned approach to learning that includes a combination of methods such as classroom, e-learning, self-paced study, and performance support such as job aids or coaching.

Blended learning

507

Study of how adults learn.

Andragogy

508

Organization characterized by a capability to adapt to changes in environment.

Learning organization

509

Expectations of management translated into behaviors and results that employees can deliver.

Performance standards

510

Coaching typically conducted by a third-party vendor to support managers in mastering the fundamental principles and practices for achieving extraordinary results and empowering staff success.

Executive coaching

511

Training provided to employees at the work site utilizing demonstration and performance of job tasks.

On-the-job training (OJT)

512

Type of learning curve in which learning is fast at first but then flattens out with no apparent progress.

Plateau curve

513

Meaningful work, good feedback on performance, autonomy, and other factors that lead to high levels of satisfaction in the job.

Intrinsic rewards

514

Type of learning curve in which learning occurs in a series of increasing and decreasing returns; usually seen when an employee is attempting to learn a difficult task that also requires specific insight.

S-shaped curve

515

Relates to technical skills training; often a partnership between employers and unions.

Apprenticeship

516

Clear statement, usually in one sentence, of the purpose and intent of a human resource development program.

Goal

517

Learning elements that may be reused in a variety of contexts; examples include animated graphics, job aids, and print modules.

Learning objects (LOs)

518

This situational leadership theory states that group performances dependent upon the interaction between leadership style and situational favorableness.

Fiedler's contingency theory

519

Fiedler's three favorable factors of the leadership environment

- Leader- member relations (the degree of trust that followers have in their leader)
- Task structure (the extent to which tasks are defined)
- Position power (the degree of power and influence a leader has over subordinates)

520

Fiedler contends that certain leadership styles are more effective for certain situations. However, rather than suggesting that leaders be trained to change their preferred styles, he suggest that a better alternative is to change the favorableness of the situation by making changes to one or more of the three factors proposed by Fiedler.

Part of Key Knowledge

521

Characteristics of transactional leadership.

- Contingent reward (reward for effort, recognition of accomplishment)
- Management by exception-active. (Looks for deviations from rules)
- Management by exception - passive. (Intervenes when standards are not met)
- Laissez faire (abdicates responsibility and avoids making decisions)

522

What type of transactional leaderships characteristics does a manager have who often looks for deviation from the rules?

- Management by exception (active)

523

If a manager intervenes only if standards are not met, what type of characteristic does he/she demonstrate?

Transactional leadership Management by exception (passive)

524

Characteristics of transformational leadership

- Charisma (provides vision and sense of mission)
- Inspiration (communicates high expectations)
- Stimulation (promotes intelligence, rationality, and problem solving)
- Individualism (gives personal attention and coaches)

525

Four branches of Emotional Intelligence (EI) according to Peter Saloey and John D. Mayer.

- Perceiving emotion
- Using emotion to facilitate thought
- Understanding emotion
- Regulating emotion

526

The ability to identify and appraise emotion in oneself and others as well as in stimuli such as object or stories.

Perceiving emotion (one of four branches of emotional intelligence)

527

The ability to capitalize on feelings to inform decision making, problem solving, and other cognitive activities.

Using emotion to facilitate thought (one of four branches of emotional intelligence)

528

The ability to interpret complex feelings and the ways in which they are related.

Understanding emotions. (one of four branches of emotional intelligence)

529

The ability to monitor and manage emotions in oneself and others (detaching from feeling angry)

Regulating emotion (one of four branches of emotional intelligence)

530

Measure of an individual's emotional intelligence

Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ)

531

It is commonly accepted that there is a positive correlation between leadership effectivness and emotional intelligence quotient

Key knowledge

532

Issues affecting leadership style.

- Gender differences
- Generational characteristics
- Cross-cultural differences
- Emotional intelligence

533

A difference between management and leadership is that
a.) management aligns people to the vision and strategies, leadership establishes a structure for accomplishing plan requirements
b.) management energizes people; leadership organizes people to solve problems
c.) management establishes the vision; leadership establishes detailed steps and timetables
d.) management delegates responsibility and authority for carrying out the plan; leadership communicates the direction by words and deeds

d.) management delegates responsibility and authority for carrying out the plan; leadership communicates the direction by words and deeds

534

When creating an agenda what is the difference between Management and Leadership

- Management: Planning and budgeting (establishing detailed steps and timetables; allocating the resources)
- Leadership; Establishing direction (developing a vision of the future and strategies for producing the changes)

535

When developing a human network for achieving the agenda, what is the difference between Management and Leadership.

Management: Organizing and staffing (Establishing and staffing a structure, planning the requirements, delegating responsibilities, carrying out the plan, providing policies and procedures)
Leadership: Aligning people (communicating the direction by words and deeds, influencing the teams)

536

When executing, what is the difference between Management and Leadership?

Management: Controlling and problem solving (monitoring results, identifying deviations, planning and organizing to solve problems)
Leadership: Motivating and inspiring (energizing people to overcome barriers)

537

When it comes to outcomes, what is the difference between Management and Leadership.

Manager: produces a degree of predictability and order, consistently produces key results (on time and on budget)
Leadership: Produces change (new product, new approach)

538

The two primary dimensions of behavioral theories of leadership are:
a.) intelligence and task-relevant knowledge
b.) consideration and self-confidence
c) consideration and initiating structure
d.) initiating structure and intelligence

c) consideration and initiating structure

539

Which of the following exemplifies Hersey-Blanchard's situational theory?
a.) a leader's style must change over time as individual develop and require a different type of direction and leadership
b.) leaders don't necessarily need personal relationship with mentors to learn from them
c.) Leaders need to be charismatic because employees dislike rigid controls and inherently want to accomplish something
d.) A team leader is one equally concerned with people and production (task) to the maximum degree

a.) a leader's style must change over time as individual develop and require a different type of direction and leadership

540

According to the Hersey-Blanchard's situational leadership model, leaders will have a natural style, but effective leaders should adapt themselves to given situation to help employees become more self-reliant.

Key knowledge

541

According to the Hersey-Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model, consistency refers to using the same style for similar situations, and varying the style appropriately as the situation changes. A leader's style must change over time as individuals develop and require different type of direction and leadership.

Key knowledge

542

In the contingency theory of leadership, which of the following refers to the degree of confidence, trust, and respect that followers have in their leader?
a.) Task structure
b.) Position power
c.) situational favorableness
d.) Leader-member relations

d.) Leader-member relations

543

Emotional intelligence generally describes the ability to
a.) subordinate the emotions of others in favor of oneself
b.) empathize and manage emotions
c.) eliminate emotions from strategic decision making
d.) exhibit positive rather than negative emotions

b.) empathize and manage emotions

544

Ways of maintaining or improving employee job performance

- Performance assessment tools
- Coaching
- Counseling
- Providing feedback

545

Elements of a performance management system.

- Organizational values and goals
- Performance management standards
- Employee performance / behavior
- Measurement and feedback
- business results and employee growth

546

In the Performance Management process development plans and ............ contribute to organizational goals and the professional growth of the employee.

individual action

547

Principles, standards, or qualities that are considered worthwhile.

Organizational Values and Goals

548

Values are often displayed by .......

behavior

Values are usually expressed in the mission statement.

549

In setting and communicating performance standards, the HR professional needs to consider the following:

- Behaviors (what does the organization want the employees to do)

- Results (what does the organization want employees to produce)

550

Ways for the organization to foster a high-performance workplace.

- Executive support
- Challenging work environment
- Employee engagement activities
- Performance management training
- Continual feedback
- Resources and tools
- Consistent management practices

551

Process that measures the degree to which an employee accomplishes work requirement.

Performance appraisal.

552

Three purposes of performance appraisals

- Provide feedback and counseling
- Help in allocating reward and opportunities
- Help in determining employees' aspirations and planning developmental needs

553

What can performance appraisal do?

- Improve productivity through constructive feedback
- Identify training and developmental needs
- Communicate expectations
- Foster commitment and mutual understanding

554

Performance appraisals can be administrated on an individual or group basis: true or false?

True.

Performance appraisals can be administrated on an individual or group basis.

555

Steps in individual performance appraisal.

1. Observe employee
2. Identify and record strengths and weaknesses
3. Rate employee
4. Provide feedback
5. Set goals

556

Appraisal methods.

- Category rating methods
- Comparative methods
- Narrative methods
- Special methods

557

The least complex method of appraising performance, require the appraiser to mark an employee's level of performance on a designated form.

Category rating performance appraisal method.

558

Catagory rating performance appraisal method examples:

- Graphic scale
- Checklist
- Forced choice

559

In this type of performance appraisal method, the appraiser directly compares the performance of each employee with that of the other.

Comparative method

560

Types of Comparative performance methods.

- rankings
- paired comparison
- forced distribution

561

This type of comparative performance appraisal method is used when employees are rated and placed at different percentage points along a bell-shaped curve.

Forced distribution

562

Type of performance appraisal method where appraiser submits written narrative performance appraisal.

Narrative appraisal performance method.

563

Examples of Narrative performance appraisal methods.

- Essay
- Critical incidents
- Field reviews

564

Special performance appraisal methods.

- Management by objectives (MBO)
- Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)

565

In this type of performance appraisal method, employees help set objectives for themselves, defining what they intend to achieve within a specific time period.

Management by objective (MBO) - special appraisal method.

566

This type of performance appraisal method was designed to combat the problems of category rating by describing examples of desirable and undesirable behavior. Examples are measured against a scale of performance levels.

Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS)

567

Advantages of Behavioral Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

- works best when employees perform the same tasks
- more accurate gauge
- clearer standards
- feedback
- independent dimensions
- consistency across ob descriptions

568

Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) requires an organization to:

- generate critical incidents
- develop performance dimensions
- reallocate incidents
- scale the incidents
- develop the final instrument

569

Errors in performance appraisal

- Halo/horn effect
- Recency
- Primacy
- Bias
- Strictness
- Leniency
- Central tendency (all employees rated within a narrow range)
- Contrast (rating compares to others instead of an objective standards)

570

Advantage of graphic scale as a performance appraisal tool.

Scales are simple to use and provide a Quantitive rating for each employee.

571

Disadvantage of graphic scale as a performance appraisal tool.

Standards may be unclear

572

Advantage of Ranking as a performance appraisal tool

Ranking is simple to use bt not as simple as graphic scales.

573

Disadvantage of Ranking as a performance appraisal tool

Ranking can cause disagreements among employees and may be unfair if all employees are excellent.

574

Advantage of forced distribution as a performance appraisal tool

Distribution forces a predetermined number of people into each group.

575

Disadvantage of forced distribution as a performance appraisal tool

Appraisal results depend on the adequacy of your original choice of cutoff points.

576

Advantage of Critical incidents as a performance appraisal tool

Tool helps specify what is "right" and "wrong" about the employee's performance; it forces supervisor to evaluate subordinates on an ongoing basis.

577

Disadvantage of critical incidents as a performance appraisal tool

It may be difficult to rate or rank employees relative to one another.

578

Advantage of MBO as a performance appraisal tool

Tool is tied to jointly agreed-upon performance objectives.

579

Disadvantage of MBO as a performance appraisal tool

Tool may be time-consuming to implement.

580

Advantage of BARS as a performance appraisal tool

Behavioral "anchors" are very accurate.

581

Disadvantage of BARS as a performance appraisal tool

BARS may be difficult to develop.

582

This type of performance appraisal error occurs when an appraisal gives more weight to the employee's earlier performance and discounts recent occurrences.

Primacy

583

This type of performance appraisal error occurs when an appraiser gives more wights to recent occurrences and discounts the employee's earlier performance during the appraisal period.

Recency

584

This type of performance appraisal error occurs when en employee is extremely competent in one area and is therefore rated high in all categories.

Halo effect

585

This type of performance appraisal error occurs when employee's one weakness in one area results i an overall low rating.

Horn effect

586

This type of performance appraisal error occurs when an appraiser's values, beliefs, or prejudices distort ratings.

Bias

587

This type of performance appraisal error when an appraiser is reluctant to give high ratings.

Strictness

588

This type of performance appraisal error occurs when an appraiser do not want to give low scores.

Leniency

589

This type of performance appraisal error occurs when an appraiser rates all employees within a narrow range, regardless of differences in actual performance.

Central tendency

590

This type of performance appraisal error occurs when an employee's rating is based on how his or her performance compares to that of another employee instead of an objective performance standards.

Contrast

591

Legal considerations i performance appraisals.

- Absence of evidence that may imply discrimination
- Evidence that proves validity of appraisal
- Evaluation criteria that limit subjective responses
- Personal knowledge of and interaction with the rate employee
- A review process that prevents one manager from over-influencing an employee's career
- Equitable employee treatment

592

Guidelines for giving feedback

- Describe the behavior; don't judge it
- Assume an attitude of helpfulness rather than power and domination
- Empathize with the employees
- Give specific examples of good and substantial employee performance

593

An anecdotal record of critical incidents or tasks that are performed by the employees.

Performance diary / log

594

Notes that contain any of a number of measures, including unit measures, quantity and quality measure, and accounting and cost measures, as tehy relate to the employee.

Performance records

595

A forced choice method of appraisal requires an appraiser to
a.) measure employees against a five-point scale
b.) mark items on a checklist
c.) check two of four statement; one most likely and one least likely
d.) select key statement from a list of positive and negative statements

c.) check two of four statement; one that is most like the employee and one that is least like the employee

596

Which of the following narrative appraisal method is completed by a supervisor and a human resource professional
a.) critical incidents
b.) field review
c.) essay
d.) paired comparison

b. Field review

The HR professional interviews the supervisor and takes notes concerning the performance of each employee.

597

Which of the following appraisal methods include the employee in setting goals?
a.) 360-feedback
b.) Behaviorally anchored rating scale
c.) behavior observation scale
d.) Management by objective

d.) Management by Objective (MOB)

598

Which of the following performance appraisal method was designed to combat the problems of category rating?
a.) BARS
b.) MOB
c.) MOS
d.) 360-degree feedback

a.) BARS

Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) was designed to combat the problems of category rating by describing examples of desirable and undesirable behavior.

599

OD intervention strategies are generally characterized as

a.) interpersonal, operational, or team.
b.) functional, dynamic, or static.
c.) interpersonal, technological, or structural.
d.) task, individual, or organizational.

c.) interpersonal, technological, or structural.

OD (Organizational Development) intervention strategies are generally characterized as interpersonal, technological, or structural.

600

Supervisors managing in a total quality environment must adapt by

a.) learning to manage in a more participative environment.
b.) participating in critical incident training.
c.) paying closer attention to control mechanisms.
d.) encouraging employees to keep the department clean.

a.) learning to manage in a more participative environment.

The need for teamwork in total quality calls for more open communication between managers and line employees. Supervisors must learn to manage and coach in a more participative environment, and employees have to learn skills to help them run meetings, be a part of teams, and make decisions on their own.

601

Which of the following is the BEST solution when a skilled facilitator is not a subject matter expert (SME)?

a.) The SME attends facilitator training.
b.) The facilitator teaches with an SME.
c.) The SME teaches the program.
d.) The facilitator learns the material.

b.) The facilitator teaches with an SME.
Often, knowledge resides in an individual who is not a skilled facilitator. While the SME may have all the answers, he or she may not possess the skills to create a comfortable learning environment. In these instances, pairing a willing SME with a confident facilitator will yield the best results for participants.

602

A conceptual framework that makes patterns clearer is referred to as

a.) systems thinking.
b.) a shared vision.
c.) a mental model.
d.) team learning.

a.) systems thinking.

Systems thinking is one of the five disciplines of a learning organization. This discipline helps individuals create organizational change by providing a framework that highlights the interconnectedness of all processes.

603

An auto repair chain uses manual procedures for checking cars in and out and has received complaints about delays. The CEO attributes the problem to employee laziness. Which motivational theory does the CEO exhibit?

a.) Situational
b.) Contingency
c.) Theory X
d.) Theory Y

c.) Theory X
Theory X managers believe that employees inherently do not like to work and must be strictly controlled. The CEO exhibits this authoritative style by stating that problems are due to employee laziness.

604

An OSHA-mandated seminar on safety was recently converted to an e-learning course and is available on the organization's intranet. The Web course consists of self-study units with accompanying quizzes and e-mail access to a subject matter expert. What is the PRIMARY disadvantage of this approach?

a.) OSHA will not be able to determine if the course was completed effectively.
b.) The organization will have to pay overtime for exempt employees who complete the course outside of work hours.
c.) The training does not allow for interaction among participants.
d.) Participants will take longer to complete the training if they are not familiar with computer-based training.

c.) The training does not allow for interaction among participants
The biggest drawback may be the fact that the training does not develop teamwork among employees or allow them to share ideas with each other. While overtime could be an issue, the training is mandated and the company will probably find a way to incorporate training into the workday or pay the overtime.

605

One of the most important reasons to cite sources when making a training presentation is to

a.) add relevant information.
b.) ensure that all royalties are paid.
c.) comply with copyright law.
d.) allow participants to research errors.

c.) comply with copyright law.

The Copyright Act protects a known author's work for the life of the author plus 70 years. An anonymous work is protected for 95 years from the first year of publication or 120 years from the year of creation.

606

In an e-learning environment, when participants gather for discussion online at a specific time, this is considered to be

a.) synchronous learning.
b.) asynchronous learning.
c.) distance learning.
d.) virtual classroom learning.

a.) synchronous learning.

Synchronous learning is when participants interact in real time.

Asynchronous learning is when participants access the learning materials at different times. Distance learning is when instruction is delivered to locations away from a classroom with no specific time element.


607

Which of the following is the best basis for developing an HRD program?

a.) Request of supervisors
b.) Results of a needs assessment
c.) Employee career plans
d.) Top management directives

b.) Results of a needs assessment
An HRD program risks being unsuccessful when not based on the results of a thorough needs assessment. Management directives, supervisor requests, or employee career plans would all be reasons why an HRD professional would begin the needs assessment process. Then, with the data gathered, it would be determined if the issue raised was one that could be solved by an HRD initiative.

608

An employee is late for a meeting. The members of the group continue the meeting and do not acknowledge the employee. No attempt is made to summarize previous discussion. This is an example of

a.) negative reinforcement.
b.) punishment.
c.) extinction.
d.) positive reinforcement.

c.) extinction.
Extinction is the absence of a response to a situation. In this case, the group's lack of response may make the employee feel uncomfortable, and the employee will get the message about being on time for meetings.

609

In performance management, the comparative method that uses a bell-shaped curve for rating employees is called

a.) paired comparison.
b.) forced choice.
c.) forced distribution.
d.) ranking distribution.

c.) forced distribution.
The forced distribution method places employees on a curve that is divided into multiple sections (i.e., the lowest 10% is poor, the next 20% is below standard, the largest group is standard, and so on), representing the shape of a bell curve.

610

At which level of learning is an employee able to make judgments as to which manufacturing process produces better results?

a.) Analysis
b.) Evaluation
c.) Application
d.) Synthesis

b.) Evaluation
At the evaluation level, a trainee can make judgments about which process, product, or solution is better than another.

611

An HRD professional who helps individuals understand their strengths and weaknesses in order to achieve job and personal goals is demonstrating which HRD competency?

a.) Technical
b.) Interpersonal
c.) Business
d.) Intellectual

b.) Interpersonal
The interpersonal competency requires HRD professionals to understand and practice actions that involve human relationships at individual and group levels. The ability to communicate in these relationships, both verbally and in writing, is central to this competency. It is from this competency that HRD professionals derive their facilitation skills.

612

The MOST appropriate method for training supervisors to conduct effective discipline meetings is

a.) case study.
b.) presentation.
c.) demonstration.
d.) structured exercise.

d.) structured exercise
Structured exercises enable participants to immediately practice new skills in the learning environment. In the case of the supervisors' training, after observing the facilitator properly conducting a disciplinary meeting, the supervisors would be paired up and asked to practice the skill. While case studies, demonstrations, and presentations could be used, these methods do not provide the opportunity to practice the skill in training. Providing practice time is critical because it will increase the supervisors' retention level. The supervisors may not use this skill immediately when back on the job, so the higher the retention level, the better.

613

A performance management system does NOT include which of the following?

a.) Developing employees
b.) Rewarding good performance
c.) Comparing performance to the organization's competitors
d.) Monitoring employee performance

c.) Comparing performance to the organization's competitors
A performance management system does not include a comparison to the organization's competitors. The system should be correlated to the goals of the organization.

614

__________ is one of several learning organization characteristics.
a.) An assessment center
b.) Massed practice
c.) System thinking
d.) Programmed instructions

c.) Systems thinking
Systems thinking refers to the characteristics of a learning organization that uses a variety of information-gathering techniques to acquire knowledge of new technology, determine its value, and convert this knowledge into new and improved practices and procedures.
Systems thinking is one of the five disciplines in the Learning Organization.

615

_______ is/are used to determine what kind of training an individual needs.
a.) Assessment centers
b.) Massed practice
c.) Systems thinking
d.) Programmed instruction

a.) Assessment centers
Assessment centers are characterized by multiple tests designed to measure different aspects of the job. Generally used to assess candidates for management potential and decision-making skills, they have been demonstrated to be valid predictors of success on the job. Limited use due to the high costs. Used for assessing internal candidates for promotion.

616

_________ is/are form/forms of practicing job tasks during training in which all tasks are practiced at the same time.
a.) Assessment centers
b.) Massed practice
c.) Systems thinking
d.) Programmed instruction

b.) Massed practice

617

Which of the following should be included in a supervisory training program?
a.) Conflict resolution skills
b.) Budgeting
c.) Rotation through various divisions
d.) Internal controls

a.) Conflict resolution skills
Supervisory training programs should concentrate on topics related to interactions with employees, such as conflict resolution skills.

618

__________ is/are part of management development programs.
a.) Conflict resolution skills
b.) Budgeting skills
c.) internal control training
d.) Rotation through divisions

b.) Budgeting skills and
c.) Internal control training

619

__________ is/are part of a leadership program
a.) Conflict resolution skills
b.) Budgeting skills
c.) Rotation through divisions
d.) Internal control training

c.) Rotation through divisions

620

In the evaluation phase, the ________ evaluation method focuses on how well the training resulted in learning new skills and competencies:
a.) reaction
b.) learning
c.) behavior
d.) results

b.) the learning evaluation method
The learning evaluation method focuses on how well the training resulted in learning new skills.

621

The _______ evaluation method focuses on participant reactions.
a.) reaction evaluation
b.) learning evaluation
c.) behavior evaluation
d.) results evaluation

a.) The reaction evaluation

622

The _______ evaluation method measures on-the-job behavior changes as a result of training.
a.) reaction evaluation
b.) learning evaluation
c.) behavior evaluation
d.) results evaluation

c.) The behavior evaluation method

623

The ________ evaluation method measures organizational results.
a.) reaction evaluation
b.) learning evaluation
c.) behavior evaluation
d.) results evaluation

d.) The result evaluation method.

Of the four methods, the results evaluation method is considered the most valuable for the organization.

624

Which of the following factors can adversely affect transfer of training?
a.) The trainer's expertise
b.) A lack of job reinforcement
c.) The subject of the training
d.) None of the above

b.) A lack of job reinforcement can adversely affect transfer of training.

625

Organization with several employees in technical and scientific careers can most effectively impact retention by providing
a.) Dual-career ladders
b.) An employee wellness program
c.) A validated succession planning program
d.) Various telecommuting options

a.) Dual-career ladders provide opportunities for a parallel occupational track that recognizes and rewards different skill sets. This allows organizations to retain their technical and professional employees at a similar rate as their managerial track employees.

626

Organization with several employees in technical and scientific careers can most effectively impact retention by providing
a.) Dual-career ladders
b.) An employee wellness program
c.) A validated succession planning program
d.) Various telecommuting options

a.) Dual-career ladders provide opportunities for a parallel occupational track that recognizes and rewards different skill sets. This allows organizations to retain their technical and professional employees at a similar rate as their managerial track employees.

627

Also called "needs analysis"

Needs assessment. First step in ADDIE model.

628

Levels of needs assessment

- organizational assessment
- task assessment
- individual assessment

629

Identifies the knowledge, skills, and abilities employees will need in the future. Measures/asks the "where is training needed"

Organizational assessment level in the needs assessment of the ADDIE model

630

Compares job requirements with employee knowledge and skills to identify areas needing improvement. Measures/asks the "what needs to be taught".

Task assessment level in the needs assessment of the ADDIE model.

631

Focuses on individual employees and how they perform their jobs, usually determined through performance reviews. Measures/asks "who should be trained".

Individual assessment level in the needs assessment of the ADDIE model.

632

This model provides an easy way to remember to include its elements when composing training objectives.

S (Specific)
M (Measurable)
A (Attainable)
R (Realistic)
T(Timely)

633

Hat is the primary focus of Kirkpatrick's model?

Evaluating effectiveness after the program has been conducted, using different data collection method.