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Flashcards in Theorists Deck (30)
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(B) Semiology is the...

study of signs.


(B) Signs consist of...

a signifier; a word, an image, a sound, etc.) and its meaning - the signified.


(B) The denotation of a sign is its...

literal meaning (e.g. the word 'dog' denotes a mammal that barks)


(B) Connotations are the...

associations of the denotation
e.g. 'dogness' - the thoughts and feelings associated with dogs


(B) Denotations and Connotations are organised into...

myths - the ideological meaning. These make ideology seem natural.
e.g. a bulldog might activate myth of Britishness


(B) Barthes uses the word myths to describe the way...

connotations suggested by a sign have come to be seen as normal and natural


(B) The meanings created by myths often reflect...

dominant values and ideologies


(B) Define Anchorage

when a piece of media uses another piece of media to reduce the amount of connotations in the first, therefore allowing the audience to interpret it much more easily.


(B) Give an example of anchorage

in a newspaper, pictures are accompanies by a caption that allows us to understand what the picture is showing us


(T) All narratives share a...

basic structure that involves a movement from one state of equilibrium to another


(T) The two states of equilibrium (in a narrative) are separated by...

a period of imbalance or disequlibrium


(T) The way in which narratives are resolved can have...

a particular ideological significance


(T) Fill in the gaps:
Todorov identifies the different stages of a (1), moving from the everyday life of the characters (the (2) ), the disruption to that (the (3) ), and the resolution of that disruption into a new equilibrium.

(1)- narrative
(2)- equilibrium
(3)- disequilibrium


(T) Define Masterplot

A technique for creating a story that is recreated through plot and retold differently over time because of its cultural significance.


(T) Define Diegesis

A term used to name the story depicted on screen, as opposed to the story in real time that the screen narrative is about


(T) Diegesis may concern...

elements - such as characters, events, and things with the main or primary narrative


(N) Genre theory is about what...

genres are, and about how and why they are created, change endure or decline


(N) Neale argues that genre is a process by which...

genetic codes and conventions are shared by producers and audiences through repetition in media products


(N) Neale says that genres are not fixed, but...

constantly evolve with each new addition to the generic corpus


(N) Define Generic Corpus

The collection of texts or relating to or shared by a whole group of similar things


(N) What did Neale refer to as the 'intertextual relay'?

Generic codes and conventions that are not just established in the media product but in the product that refers to it, e.g. critical writings, advertising and marketing material


(LS) Structuralism is the study of...

the hidden roles that govern a structure


(LS) Levi-Strauss thought that the human mind could be investigated by...

studying the fundamental structure underlying myths and fables from around the world


(LS) Binary opposition is the idea that...

the system of myths and fables was ruled by a structure of opposing terms
e.g. hot-cold, male-female, culture-nature, raw-cooked


(Bau) Postmodernism is the idea that...

society has moved beyond the movement of modernism


(Bau) Fill in the gaps:
Baudrillard argued that, as modern societies were organised around (1), postmodern society is organised around (2) - the play of (3) and (4).

(1) production of goods
(2) simulation
(3) images
(4) signs


(Bau) Hyperreality is the idea that...

representations are now more powerful and 'real' than reality


(Bau) Hyperreal representations don't represent reality, instead they are...

representations of representations


(G) Gauntlett promotes the idea that media provides us with...

'tools' or resources that we use to construct our identites


(G) Fill in the Gaps:
Gauntlett promotes the idea that whilst in the past media tended to convey (1) about ideal types of (2) identities, the media today offer us a more (3) range of (4) from whom we may pick and mix different ideas

(1)- singular, straightforward messages
(2)-male and female
(4)-stars, icons and characters