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Flashcards in Theory of War and Strategy Deck (35):
1

Strategic Appraisal Tool

(1) How do they understand the issue?
(2) What's the influence of domestic factors?
(3) How do they see their interests?
(4) What is their Strategy?

2

How to test alignment of Ends, Ways, Means in a Strategy?

FAS-R:
(1) Feasibility - Do the means exist to support the strategy?
(2) Acceptability - Ways of Strategy acceptable to stakeholders?
(3) Suitability - does the strategy align E,W,M to significantly contribute to achieve desired ends?
RISKS - What are the risks? Mitigations?

3

What is Strategy?

Strategy is the alignment of
(1) Ends - Aims; Objectives
(2) Ways - Concepts; Methods
(3) Means - Resources
- Informed by risk to achieve

4

IR (International Relation) Theory

(1) Realism: constant struggle for power that is carried out under conditions that border on anarchy (controlled anarchy); competitive "SELF-HELP" international system; Cost vs Benefit analysis
(2) Liberalism: security is mutual & created through cooperation Int'l agreements, organizations; rejects pessimistic realists world; sees world politics as area in which all participants (state/non-state actors) can advance their own interests peacefully w/o threatening others; Global society matters alongside state relationships; International society
(3) Constructivism: assert that international politics is not shaped by fixed underlying forces but by our perceptions of them; ideas and cultural and historical experience give meaning to what we see; leaders motivated by sense of identity, morality, society/culture norms and not just on material interests.

5

What is War?

- Socially sanctioned use of violence to achieve political ends
- Clausewitz - Continuation of politics by other means
- Nature of War (Enduring) vs Character of War (Changing)

6

What are interests and their levels?

Desired End States Necessary to the Existence or Prosperity of a Nation or Group
- Survival
- Vital
- Important
- Peripheral

7

Echelons of Strategy

- Grand Strategy (System Level): A Nation's role in the world
- National Strategy (State Level): Alignment of E,W,M to achieve nation's objectives
- Theater Strategy (Individual Level): Alignment of Military E,W,M, to support National Objectives

8

Describe the components of War

(1) Nature of War (Unchanging) - violence; reasons for war (Fear, Honor, Interest); Human Element
(2) Character of War (constantly changing) - Impact of technology; new TTPs; Ends, Means, & Ways Strategies

9

Clausewitz Trinity

Passion - Chance - Reason

10

Clausewitz - Key Theorists

Trinity: (Reason, Passion, Chance)
Triangle: (Gov - People - Military);
- War is continuation of politics by other means
- War is a duel on a larger scale
- No one should start war w/o clear mind on what and how he intends to achieved

11

Sun Tzu - Key Theorists

- War is of vital importance to the State
- All warfare is based on Deception
- Where he is strong avoid him
- Know the enemy; know yourself; in a hundred battles you will never peril

12

Military Power in Int'l politics (Troxell)

Overarching (Security Policy/Political Objectives)
- Defeat
- Coerce - Deter or Compel
- Other - Pressure or Dissuade
- Assist - HA or DR

13

Deterrence

- The action of discouraging an Act or Event through instilling doubt or fear of the consequences
- Based on Understanding & Influencing an opponents decision-making

14

Dissuasion

- Pre-deterrence to Influence Decision-Making
- Actions to prevent Adversary from developing
(1) Capabilities before they can be used
(2) Courses of action before they can be applied

15

Coercion

- Interaction that uses explicit threats & action to Persuade an adversary to:
(1) Cease Behavior
(2) Withdraw from positions (gained by force)
(3) Surrender Assets (gained by force)

16

Compellence

Use of military power to change an adversary's behavior
(Army Title 10 responsibility to Compel!)

17

Components of Strategic Victory (BH Liddel Hart)

(1) Established Borders
(2) Admin Functions within Defeated State
(3) Defeated State is self-sustaining
(4) Victor gains something from the conflict

18

Theory of Sea Power

(1) Mahan - embraced Jomini; Command of the Sea
- US must play role - global force thru maritime pwr
- Sea Power = Size/Strength (Navy) & Wealth
(Commerce/Merchant ships)

(2) Corbett - embraced Clausewitz; Joint Operations
- Army is a projectile fired by the Navy
- Sea Power is different from Land Power; Objective at
sea is not always to destroy enemy; protect Lines of
Communication

19

Theory of Air Power

(1) Giulio Douhet: 1912-15; Field Artillery
- Italian; Command of the Air!; Air Dominance
- Air Power is offensive
- Use of Air to "cut off" Navy/Army

(2) Billy Mitchell - WWI US Cdr
- Demonstrated Aircraft destroying a ship
- Air Supremacy - maker war "more humane"

20

War

converging forces that result in conflict

21

Strategy

formulation, coordination, and application of ends, ways, and means to promote and defend national interests; must meet the FAS test

22

FAS-R Test

- Ends (objective) = suitability
- Ways (concepts) = acceptability
- Means (resources / DIME) = feasibility
- Risk = (strategic and operational)

23

Levels of strategy

Grand (all DIME)
National (individual element)
Theater (military)

24

Just War Theory

- justification to go to war
- conduct of war
- termination of war

25

Conflict Termination

inability, improbable victory, unacceptable cost
- meeting objectives doesnt always mean a win; enemy's interpretation matters

26

Thucydides

Thucydides Trap / motivation for war:
Fear, Honor, Interest: corrosive effect of democracies

27

Liddell Hart's purpose for war

a better peace

28

Clausewitz

- war is an extention of politics
- objective of war: destroy enemy forces
- applied power against the enemy's COG
- fog and friction
- trinity:
--- People (passion/hatred)
--- Government (reason)
--- Military (calculated uncertainty)

29

Jomini

systems approach; DPs; 18 reasons

30

Sun Tzu

protect the state
- all warfare is based on deception

31

Kautilya

conquer or submit
- "Your neighbour is your natural enemy and the neighbour's neighbour is your friend"

32

MacKinder

heartland; connections via land

33

Mahan

naval power; trade

34

Douhet/Mitchell

air; deter and compel

35

What are Interests?

Desired End States Necessary to the Existence, Prosperity of a Nation or Group:

Intensity (Survival; Vital; Important; Peripheral)