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Army War College Oral Comps > Strategic Leadership > Flashcards

Flashcards in Strategic Leadership Deck (30):
1

Components of CAS

(1) Structural Complexity (NODS)
network structure; openness; diversity; size
(2) Behavioral Complexity (CAFE)
competition; adaptation; feedback; emergence
(3) Dynamic Equilibrium conditions
what is the thing that is always changing?

2

Strategic Thinking Framework

(1) Alignment of current state
guidance and environmental scarring
(2) synthesis of thinking
critical thinking; systems thinking
creative thinking (novel but useful)
divergence and convergence
(3) Judgment (your experience and values)
(4) Alignment
- desired further end state
- competitive advantage
- anticipated future environment
- Risk

3

Vision Characteristics

- Clear
- Concise
- Sense of purpose
- What's Important
- Desired Future Endstate
- Flexible
- Feasible

4

Strategic Leader Focus

(1) Alignment: shared vision and unity of purpose
(2) Vision: provides sense of purpose, direction, and motivation
(3) Change: adapt to the environment

5

Three Lenses of Ethical Reasoning

(1) Utilitarian (teleology): actions have no morale value, only the outcome [OUTCOME]
(2) Principle (deontology): take the right action regardless of the outcome - [duty to rules]
(3) Character (virtue ethics) - emphasis on moral character

6

Strategic Thinker Foundation

(1) Self Awareness: ego, assumption, biases
(2) Awareness of cultural influences on thinking - strategic empathy
(3) Consideration of ethics and values
(4) openness to both discourse and reflection
- requires thinking fast and slow

7

Strategic Leader Competencies

(1) Conceptual
(a) Frame of Reference
(b) Problem Management
(c) Envisioning the Future
(2) Technical
(a) Systems Understanding
(b) JIIM Relationships
(c) Political and Social Realities (policy -- strategy)
(3) Interpersonal
(a) Consensus Building
(b) Negotiation
(c) Communication

8

Climate versus Culture

Climate: the link between individual and organization
- shapes effectiveness of process and outcomes
Culture: beliefs translated into daily habits across the workforce

9

Strategic Leadership

Tasks of:
(1) Visioning
(2) Alignment
(3) Change

10

Multiple Causation Framework to Understand CAS

(1) Regularity and Probability: what is the pattern?
(2) Counterfactuals: what happens when I change the variable? (ex. cluster munitions)
(3) Physicalism: work from "bang" backward to see how it fits together
(4) Disposition: how do the ingredients combine?
(5) are the identified relationships subject to manipulation?
(6) what is the probability of miscalculation?

11

How to visualize possible futures of a CAS

(1) Examine changes in behaviors and interactions of system components that produce new conditions (macro to micro analysis)
(2) ID how changes in systematic conditions affect system components (micro to macro analysis)
(3) Understand the risk of change from one condition to the other during the transition (disequilibrium) to a new equilibrium

12

Critical Thinking

o Reflective Skepticism: clarify concern, point of view, assumptions, influences
o Purposeful, goal directed: leader = stable, receptive to change
o Required to navigate thru:
(1) VUCA environment
(2) complex adaptive systems
(3) "wicked problems" - ill-structures, unique, and no alternative solutions
o meta-cognition
o improves judgement

13

Negotiation (BATNA) and (ZOPA)

o Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement
o Zone of Potential Agreement
- Refuse
- Joint Problem Solve
- Asymptotic
- Brinkmanship

14

Meta-Cognition

Meta-cognition: thinking about thinking
- Heuristic: Bias Based Approach
- Probabilistic: Situation Based Approach
- Rational: Logic Based Approach

15

Kotter's 8 Steps

(1) Establish a sense of urgency
(2) Form a guiding coalition
(3) Create a Vision / Strategy
(4) Communicate the Vision
(5) Empower others to act on the vision - empowering action
(6) Plan for and creating short-term wins
(7) Consolidate improvements and produce more change (consolidate gains)
(8) Institutionalize new approaches (anchor in culture)

16

In today's face-paced environment strategic leaders need to do what?

(1) Scan their environment
(2) anticipate change proactively
(3) develop visions that guide where their organization should be in 10-20 years
(4) align the organization's culture and climate with their vision and current workforce
(5) create and maintain an ethics and values-based direction that reinforces their organization's vision

17

Strategic Leader Tasks

- provide vision
- shape culture
- build/shape JIIM relationships
- build/shape national-level relationships
- represent the organization
- manage change

18

Strategic Leader Environment

- volatile, uncertain, complex, ambiguous
- Threats: instability and conflict
- international alliances: political, cultural and economic factors
- national culture: beliefs, values, and opinions
- Military Industrial Complex: influence senior leaders
- Public Opinion: public perception
- Federal Budget: Planning, Programing, Budgeting, Execution (PPBE) process
- Technology: capabilities and vulnerabilities
- Federal Government: civilian control
- Private Organizations: Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Private Voluntary Organizations (PVOs)
- Internal Environment: Service interests

19

Management vs. Leadership:

- Management= Planning, Budgeting, Organizing, Staffing, Controlling, Problem Solving.
- Leadership= Define, Align, and Inspire

20

Negotiation

mutually beneficial solution

21

Army Profession

- trust
- military expertise
- honorable service
- esprit de corps
- stewardship of the profession

22

Culture Change

- Embedding mechanisms – structure, policy (must do); leads to compliance
- Reinforcing mechanisms – vision, metrics (builds on); leads to commitment

23

Kotter - Communicate a Visions

- Simple (example, etc)
- Multiple forums
- Repetition
- Lead by example
- Explain inconsistencies
- Give and take (2-way)
- Buy-in

24

Creative Thinking:

divergent; leads to innovation; ideas and concepts; effective in resolving ambiguous/complex problems.

25

Systems Thinking:

understanding organizational processes; interrelated tendencies; performance evaluation; effective for process issues

26

Strategic Thinking

- enabled through environmental scanning
- synthesis results in vision
- the applied judgment provides a competitive edge, future strategy, and risk mitigation

27

Ethical Reasoning

- teleological: ends/objectives moral?
- deontological: ways follow the rules?
- unitarian: means maintain human progress?
- actor-focus: individual is decisive
- environmental focus: cross-cultural relationship

28

Argument Analysis

- Argument against person
- False Dichotomy
- False Cause
- Appeal to fear
- Appeal to masses
- Slippery slope
- Weak analogy
- Red Herring

29

Impact of Biases and Traps

Avail heuristic (mental shortcut)
Sample size
Regression to the mean
Insufficient anchor adjust.
Overconfidence
Self-serving bias
Confirmation trap
Fundamental attribution error

30

Schein Model (Culture)

- Artifacts:

represent the first level of culture. They are visible, but often undecipherable physical, behavioral, and verbal manifestations of the culture

- Norms & Values:

Unlike artifacts, norms and values cannot typically be observed. Values are more conscious than basic assumptions but are not usually at the forefront of member’s minds. Norms are closely associated with values and are the unwritten rules that allow members of a culture to know what is expected of them in a wide variety of situations.


- Underlying Assumptions:

As an example, an organization might have an underlying assumption that “people are bad.”