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Flashcards in Therapeutic Additives part 1 Deck (91):

What are the basic therapeutic additives in hydrotherapy?

Salt and Epsom Salt


What are the therapeutic additives in Aromatherapy?




Friar’s Balsam


Lavender (gentle and refreshing)


This is a contrast application that involves using alternating hot and cold applications on the same site. Can vary duration of hot and cold depending on stage of injury (late acute, sub- acute, early chronic).

Vascular Flush


____________ - It is also known as a strong decongestant, contains up to 50% menthol oils. These oils have an analgesic effect on the body and gives peppermint antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory properties. It also seems to stimulate brain function and memory.



In the application of vascular flush, Starting temperature is applied for 3 minutes on site then remove and apply the opposite temperature for three minutes.

How many cycles and what is the duration of vascular flush?

Repeat three cycles

End treatment with the three minute starting temperature


___________ - It has anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties. Its highly volatile oil gives a cooling effect on the skin and aids in elimination when added to the steam bath, where it is also useful for sinus congestion.



In acute stage and early sub acute, What do we use for vascular flush?

Late acute, early sub-acute, use predominantly cold flush 


__________ - is a sedative, making it a useful bath additive for insomnia and anxiety. Soothing to the skin.



In Sub-acute stage and early sub acute, What do we use for vascular flush?

Sub-acute, use neutral flush 


______________ - It can be added to steam treatments for its expectorant properties.

Friar’s Balsam (AKA; Tincture of Benzoin)


In Late sub-acute and early chronic stage , What do we use for vascular flush?

Late sub-acute, early chronic, use predominantly hot flush 


________ - It stimulates the skin and is refreshing and uplifting.



The following are effects of vascular flush. Except:

1. Marked increase in local circulation and venous return occurs

2. One study of 30 minute flush increased circulation in the lower body by 95%

3. Helps move metabolics

4. Increases edema and increases tissue healing

Except: 4

Decreases edema not increases


_______ - is used for its drawing effect. Epsom salt is alkaline and speeds recovery, from over training or mild muscle strains.



This is a contrast application that involves using hot and cold applications on different anatomical sites (cold always distal and hot on watershed)



What are the two types of electric heating pad?

1. Heating pad which once applied, collects moisture from the body and reflects the heat back into the body2.Heating pad that applies dry heat to the body


Applying heat to appropriate watershed: If target edema is in lower limb then heat on _______________ . If target edema is in upper limb then heat on ________________ .

inguinal lymph nodes

axillary lymph nodes


How to use electric heating pad?

Turn on electric pad

Apply to affected areas over dry towel

Watch temperature


In application of shunt: Cold is applied directly to area of edema/injury , minimum ________ difference to proximal temperature.

ten degree


The following are effects of using electric heating pad. Except:

1. Vasoconstriction

2. Analgesic

3. Relieves muscle spasms

4. Promotes sweating

5. Loosens congested chest

6. Relaxes nerves and muscles

Except: 1 Vasodilatation not vasoconstriction


What is the duration of application of shunt?

10 to 15 minute application


True about Hydrocullator. Except:

1. Relatively recent invention

2. Prior to the discovery of rubber, people would use heated bricks or heated soap stone wrapped in heavy cloth and placed over their bodies

3. This is a moist heat

4. Unit operates at 200 degrees F, which heats clay filled packs to same temperature

Except: 4

Unit operates at 165 degrees F


What are the effects of shunt application?

Vasoconstriction on site with vasodilation proximally Results in “shunting” of circulation towards heart or proximal nodes to decrease congestion.


How to use Hydrocullator?

Place pack in dry towel

Layer towels according to desired temperature

Apply to affected area


What is the use of Shunt?

Powerful drawing effects makes it ideal for earlier stages in healing


What are the effects of using Hydrocullator?


Relief of pain

Relief of muscle spasm (chronic)

Loosens congestion in chest Relaxes


Father Sebastian Kneipp considered it to be the mildest form of hydrotherapy. Varying temperatures may by used although tepid – cold washes are most common.



What are the uses of Hydrocullator?

Menstrual cramps

Use on forehead to relief sinus congestion

Warms cold hands and feet


In the procedure of washes, A small towel or terry cloth is immersed (frequently) to maintain temperature and wrung out. The wash should start on what area?

Classically the wash starts at the extremity (on the least sensitive surface and is applied with a series of gliding applications) distal to proximal.


Hot vapour treatments differ from the cold mist vapour treatments, as they are produced as heated water, forms steam. The patient holds a blanket or towel over their head to retain the steam, in the makeshift tent. This is called:

Steam Inhalation


True or False:

For a full body wash, the torso is left until last, back first, then the abdomen.



What are the reasons of using steam that collects under the tent?

Re-humidify air

Prevent skin from dehydrating

Deliver medication

Ease nasal congestion

Ease nasal inflammation

Soothes irritated bronchials


The following are uses of Wash. Except:

1. Good follow-up for many hot general hydro application

2. Abdominal washes (warm) may be used to stimulate GI motility

3. For fever control, cool/tepid washes

4. To counteract negative reaction to exfoliation

Except: 2

It should be cold not warm


Effect of steam inhalation in which there is an increase blood flow to areas affected by inhalation and condensation.



This involves immersion of the feet in water (hot, cold or alternating temperatures).

Foot Baths


Effect of steam inhalation in which there is a relieve painful muscle spasms.



What is the duration of foot bath if Hot water is used?

3 – 10 minutes.


Effect of steam inhalation in which there is a decreases nerve sensation, relieving pain.



What is the duration of foot bath if cold water is used?

1 to 3 minutes.


Effect of steam inhalation in which there is a reduce nasal and bronchial inflammation.



What is the duration of foot bath if Alternating ( hot and cold ) water is used?

hot 3 minutes, cold 1 minute or cold 3 minutes, hot 1 minute.


Effect of steam inhalation in which steam promotes sweating.



What are the indication for hot foot bath?

Chronic - sprain, strain, tendentious or arthritic, plantar fascitis

Strong derivative for vascular headaches

Cold, coughs, influenza

Kidney rheumatism, gout, excessively sweaty feet


Effect of steam inhalation in which loosen bronchial and lung congestion producing more productive coughing.



What are the indication for Cold foot bath?

weak tired feet

Pes planus valgus


cold achy feet

stimulates circulation in all organs of lower abdomen

Acute musculoskeletal problems in the feet Varicose veins


True or False:

1. In addition to having all of the same effects as cool mist vaporizers, steam inhalations have the ability to deliver medication deep into the lungs and nasal cavity. 2. The steam is an excellent way to open sinuses during cold and flu season by adding a little Vicks of Mentholatum to the boiling water.



What are the indication for Alternating foot bath?

sub-acute conditions in feet

Chronic foot edema

chronic cold feet

soothes chronic skin


The oil is extracted from the leaves and twigs of the plant. This oil acts as an analgesic, antiseptic, antiviral and decongestant.

Eucalyptus Essential Oil


This treatment involves immersion of the arms (and hands) in water. Possible application temperature are: hot, cold or alternating.

Arm baths


It is a very good analgesic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and more. This pale liquid is very strong and blends well with other oils. It is also refreshing and rejuvenating.

Peppermint Essential Oil


The following are duration of arm bath using different temperature of water. Except:

a) Hot 3 – 10 minutes.

b) Cold 2 – 5 minutes.

c) Alternating; 3 minutes cold/1 minute hot x 3 or 3 minutes hot/1 minute cold x 3

Except: 2

Cold is 1 – 3 minutes in duration


It is a herbaceous oil that is very aromatic for steaming. It is a shrubby bush that has silvery green leaves and many use it for cooking. An antiseptic, stimulant and antimicrobial.

Rosemary Essential Oil


What type of arm bath are used in the following conditions?

Chronic strains, sprains or tendonitis in the arms, wrist or hands, chronic arthritic joints, rheumatic aches, hypertonicity

hot arm bath


What are the herbs, spices or oils that can be added to steam inhalation for Bronchitis?

Basil, Benzoin, Cedarwood, Clove, Eucalyptus, Frankincense, Pine, Sandalwood, Rosemary, Tea Tree Oil, Thyme.


What are the indications for Cold arm bath?

Acute sprains, strains or tendonitis.

Help reduce stress, insomnia, writer’s cramp.


What are the herbs, spices or oils that can be added to steam inhalation for Cough?

Benzoin, Black Pepper, Cardamom, Cedarwood, Frankincense, Peppermint, Rosemary, Cypress.


What type of arm bath are used in the following conditions?

Sub acute musculoskeletal injuries

poor circulation in hands and arms

Alternating arm bath


The following are additives in steam inhalation for colds. Except:

Bay, Black Pepper, Clove, Onion, Myrrh, Orange, Pine, Rosemary or Tea Tree.

Onion Ginger not onion


This bath involves immersion of the hips, buttocks and lower abdomen. Typically, it is performed with hot, cold or neutral temperatures (alternating temperatures are infrequently used).

Sitz Bath


For Sinus, What are the additves for steam inhalation?

Basil, Rosemary, Tea Tree, Eucalyptus, Lavender, Peppermint or Marjoram.


Sitz Bath is also known as:

Hip Bath


How many cups of water is needed for steam inhalation with 4-5 drops of eucalyptus or peppermint oil into the water?

4-6 cups of boiling water


The following procedure are used for all of sitz bath. True or False:

Fill tub with 5-6 inches of water (approximately to navel)

Fill footbath with water 2 to 4 degrees warmer than sitz to prevent congestion of pelvic organs.



The client have to hold the head over the steam bowl for about how many inches?

about 12 inches above the water


What is the duration for Hot sitz bath?

3 to 8 minutes


The client keep their head under the towel, over the hot water for about how many minutes?

15 minutes


What is the temperature of water for hot sitz bath?

38°C to 40 °C


Regarding steam inhalation. True or False:

Have client hold head about 12 inches above the water, over the bowl and place a towel over the head covering the bowl as well. The client’s eyes should be closed; they should breathe in the steam slowly and deeply.



What is the duration for Neutral sitz bath?

15 minutes – 2 hours


Melting point of paraffin wax is _______ which is scalding, an oil additive reduces temperature to 48 °C which is the proper therapeutic temperature.

51.5 °C


What is the temperature of water for Neutral sitz bath?

34.4°C – 36°C


What are the effects of Paraffin wax bath?

Vasodilation increases blood flow to the area

Relaxes nerves and muscles

Relieves chronic pain

Increases tissue distensibilty - softens collagen fibers


What are the indications of Paraffin wax bath?

Arthritic joints

Stiff joints

Chronic conditions (fractures, sprain, bursitis, tendonitis )

Scars - adhesions become more pliable After cast removal, will help return moisture to skin as dead tissue will become easier to slough away


What are the contraindications of Paraffin wax bath?

Open lesions

Unhealed scars

All contraindications under contraindications for HOT baths

Older and weak people may not be able to tolerate such temperatures

People who burn easily


What are the techniques in using Paraffin wax bath?

Make sure the therapy area is clean

Start the unit 1 to 3 hours before the treatment to allow the wax to melt

Use 2 to 4 pounds of PURE paraffin wax Add 4 tbsp of mineral oil and follow instructions

Keep a chart to record date and number of treatments and the name of the therapist.

Wax should be changed and unit cleaned after 12 treatments.

Clean the unit after use


The following are considerd in using Paraffin wax bath. Except:

1. Preheat paraffin wax to 125° - 130°F (51.5°C) - then add mineral oil to adjust to correct application temperature 48°C

2. It is not necessary that the client is relaxed

3. Take blood pressure and pulse readings

4. Cleanse area to be covered by wax treatment

Except: 2

Make sure the client is relaxed


How many layers of wax is needed for Paraffin wax bath?

3 to 6 layers of wax


True or False:

Apply wax by dipping hand into the wax (dip baby finger to verify temperature of wax) or dip a paper towel, a clean paintbrush or gauze that has been dipped



What is the duration in which wax is cover with plastic then a towel?

15 to 45 minutes


This application invigorates and toughens the skin on the feet by making them more resilient. It relieves head congestion and stimulates circulation (by reflex) in all organs of the lower abdomen. It helps with headaches (30 seconds of cold water) and helps with insomnia.

Snow walk/ Dew walk


Techniques in using Snow walk/ Dew walk: What is the temperature of water?

the water should be approximately 13°C for 20 seconds.


Fill a bucket of water and stomp up and down for how many second?

60-90 seconds


___________ - is a mechanical application of ice directly to the skin. Treatment is an example of Hunting’s response at work. Easiest most economical method to apply cold. Water frozen in a paper cup or ice cube grasped with cloth (ice exposed).

Ice massage


What are the four stages of ice massage?






Before start of the Ice massage the following are done. True or False:

Ensure the patient that it is safe Demonstrate where the ice is to be applied Ask the patient to take a deep breath



How to apply the Ice massage?

Begin 3-4 inches (up to 12 inches) from the exact site of injury.

slowly move centrally so that the massage is concentrated in areas close to injured site

Apply the ice directly to the skin with a continuous circular motion around the area being treated


Ice Massage: Adjust your pattern as areas _______ and become ______ .




What is the duration of Ice massage?

Five minutes is considered maximum (heavily muscled areas – 10 minutes)


Ice Massage: When sensation returns, ______ and ________ movement therapy works well.




Application of Ice Massage: Except

1.Have the patient describe the sensations they are experiencing

2. Adjust your pattern as areas blanch and become numb

3. Keep cold off adjacent areas with dry towels

4. On completion let the area wet and moist.

Except: 4


___________ – use of hot and cold hydrotherapy applications alternately or at the same time.