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Flashcards in Therapeutics Additives part 2 Deck (92):

Application of cold or ice is also known as:



What are the indications of cold full bath?

Lethargic patient

Sluggish metabolism

Edema and swelling

Maximize athlete’s volume and intensity of training by decreasing recovery time


What are the contraindications of cold full bath?

raynaulds disease

circulatory insufficiency

sensory changes

cold sensitivity

Client that feels debility and chilled


What is the temperature of water for neutral full bath?

34.4°C to 36 °C.


_________ is utilized most commonly with therapeutic additives allowing maximum exposure time to the substance.

neutral bath


Neutral full bath: True or False.

Because there is no thermic impression on the body, very prolonged durations can be withstood. Buoyancy, hydrostatic pressure and chemical effects predominate, resulting in a sedative effect on the body.



In Hot Full Bath, what are the additives that can be used?

additives may be used especially salts or Epson salt


What is the temperature of water for Hot full bath?

38°C – 40°C


What is the duration for Hot full bath?

Prolonged ( 3-10 minutes )


What are the indications for Hot full bath?

relaxation analgesic for sore muscles


This bath starts in the neutral temperature range (usually 35°C) and hot water is added in three-minute intervals. Increasing the temperature 1°C at each interval to a final temperature of 40°C, this bath duration is usually 15 to 20 minutes.

Increasing Temperature Bath


What is are the uses of Increasing Temperature Bath?

The increasing temperature bath is usually used to induce an artificial fever in the early stages of colds or influenza.


__________ - is a friction-type application that does not rely upon thermal impression. Its response results from the highly mechanical nature of the wet salt rubbed on the skin.

Salt Glow


Salt glow is best performed on __________ body. This prepares the skin by softening the dead cells of the epidermis.



True or False:

In Salt Glow, If no tile room is available, protect your work area with sheets or plastic.



How many cup of salt is used in dong the Salt Glow?

½ cup of salt


Use of Salt Glow. True or False:

Neutral temperature of water is typically used, but cold water can be used to make the treatment more stimulating. Ordinary table salt is best for the novice, but seasoned veterans can withstand course salts (sea salt or Epsom salt)



When doing Salt glow , What is the position of the client?

Start prone then supine


What massage technique used in application of salt paste ?


Massage the area with light movements.

Continue with deeper kneading movements

Wringing and friction movements


When patient is on prone position. What is the areas in applying salt paste?

plantar surface of the foot to the buttocks.


Before turning the patient to a supine position, It is recommended to remove excess salt by:

spraying the area with neutral or cool water


When patient is on supine position. What is the areas in applying salt paste?

anterior leg/thigh




abdomen and chest can be done with the patient’s consent


What is the reason why we need cover the face of the client with a towel when doing Salt Glow on a supine position?

protect the eyes from salt


Salt Glow: True or False.

Due to thinner epidermis and sensitivity in this area, adjust pressure and duration to suit the patient. A general shower will remove remaining salt.



What is the duration for Salt Glow?

20 to 25 minutes. The treatment has stimulating effects so therefore, will work rather quickly.


What are the precautions in doing Salt Glow?

Freshly shaven skin may be sensitive and salt should be washed off immediately if irritation occurs

People who have a fair complexion typically have more sensitive skin.

Adjust pressure and duration to meet the patient’s needs Sensitive areas


What are considered the sensitive areas?

Popliteal (behind the knee)

cubital fossae (hollow at elbow)

adductor regions

bony protuberances


What are the indications for Salt Glow?

Fatigue or depression

Unhealthy dry epidermis

effective counter-irritant

useful in chronic muscular/skeletal conditions. In some cases,preparation of skin for poultice applications,


The following are contraindications of Salt Glow. Except:

1. Suffering from a headache at the time of treatment

2. Close skin lesions

3. Infectious or contagious diseases

4. Active eczema and Psoriasis

5. Frail skin (“onion-skin” commonly found in the elderly)

Except: 2

Open skin lesions not close


This is a cold water application with exfoliating properties. Can be applied with Turkish towel, loofah sponge or friction mitts dipped in water that progresses from cool to colder temperatures.

Cold Mitten Friction


What are the effects of cold mitten friction?


Immunologic enhancement


Increases skin tone


What are the indications for cold mitten friction?

Maintain skin health and tone



Fever reduction

Increase circulation


to increase circulation and help restore skin tone


What are the contraindications for cold mitten friction?

Open skin lesions

Any local or general cold Contraindications

Active eczema



Frail skin


What are the local contraindications for cold mitten friction?

cubital fossa

popliteal fossa

bony protuberances

skin lesions


What is the temperature for cold mitten friction?

15-20 degrees Celsius, For consecutive treatments lower temperature a few degrees at a time until you are working between 5-10 degrees Celsius


__________- are dependent on temperature and vigor of frictions and should be adapted according to client’s needs and desired outcomes.

stimulating effects


In cold mitten friction. When recording treatment, It is important to include:

client’s reaction and temperature of water


________ - lies completely on mechanical stimulation. It is performed in a similar manner as the Salt Glow but due to its simplicity, convenience and short time requirements for administering, it is an excellent homecare recommendation.

Dry Brush


The Dry brush should be constructed with:

 organic bristles. Fine, medium or coarse bristles should be selected appropriately for the individual’s skin sensitivity


True or False

1. The Dry Brush, like a toothbrush, is a personal hygiene instrument and should be limited to one user only.

2. Taping of the brush after each use will dislodge dead skin cells

3. Other than periodic cleansing with vinegar and water, the brush should be kept dry to prevent proliferation of bacteria

4. The dry brush begins a vigorous exfoliation procedure, should not be performed daily



________ - is best recommended as a follow up to a cleansing shower (followed by a cool affusion to close the pores)

Dry Brush


What is the sequence of dry brush?

brushing is initiated at the feet and continues up the leg and thigh with effleurage, then circular kneading type motions. The sequence continues with the hands, arms and thorax


The skin must be thoroughly dry before dry brushing begins. True or False



What are the indications of Dry Brush?

Maintaining good skin health.

Stimulating for the depressed or lethargic patient

Freshly shaven skin may be sensitive

People who have a fair complexion typically have more sensitive skin.

Sensitive areas


Steam Cabinet is also known as:

Russian Bath (AKA: Chair sweat) 


___________ – ( Russian/ chair sweat - exclude the head). Can be applied in improvised fashion (home variety) or by using an actual steam cabinet/steam room (commercial variety). Both are equally as effective but more care must be taken with improvisation so as not to direct burning steam directly onto the client’s skin.

full body steam treatment


What are the effects of Full body steam ?








What are the indications of Full body steam ?

Colds (without fever - to increase the body temperature as would happen naturally with a fever and create a less than ideal environment for the virus)

Chronic musculoskeletal disorders

Preparation for cold hydrotherapy

Preparation for exfoliation treatment

Skin re-hydration



Improvised Treatment (Home Variety) of Full body steam includes the following steps. Except:

1. Start with chair with an open meshed seat (something that will allow air and steam to flow through)

2. Protect floor under chair with plastic and insulating layer to protect it from water and/or heat damage

3. Pre-warm client’s feet

4. Place bucket of boiling water or kettle over chair - reheat as necessary - communicate with client about temperature

Except: 4

Boiling water or the kettle is place under the chair


It is place around the neck of patient during Improvised Treatment (Home Variety) of Full body steam.

collar - cool collar 


What is the duration of Improvised Treatment (Home Variety) of Full body steam?

Treatment should last from 15-20 minutes


True regarding the use of Steam Cabinet (commercial variety) in Full body steam. Except:

1. Fill reservoir in cabinet with water and turn on unit

2. Bring cabinet to temperature -hot temperature

3. Pre-warm client’s feet

4. Have client sit on bench in cabinet, close door - it should fit comfortably around the neck

Except: 2

Body temperature not hot


What are the temperature used in steam cabinet?

Continue heating the cabinet to 49-55°C. For a stimulating treatment maintain increased temperature for 5-10 minutes 15-20 minutes for sedative effect.


The following are true regarding Full body steam using steam cabinet. Except:

1. client’s pulse should not exceed 120 beats per minute

2. the client’s core temperature should not exceed 40°C, cool/cold compresses should be applied to the forehead at 37 °C

3. CAUTION: vascular headaches may result from increase in cerebral blood pressure or temperature if treatment is improperly administered

Except: 1

client’s pulse should not exceed 90 beats per minute


___________ - is immersion of the body (excluding the head) in turbulent water. In North America we typically think of the whirlpool as hot hydrotherapy, where in European spas cold whirlpools are not uncommon.

Whirlpool Bath


What is the temperature of water in Whirlpool Bath?

The water temperature should be maintained between 39-40°C (102 – 104 degrees Fahrenheit)


True or False:

Since the water in the whirlpool is exposed to many individuals, ensuring your patient is free of open lesions, infections or contagious skin conditions is imperative. Thorough cleansing of the body before and after the whirlpool is essential



How many times heating and cooling phase should be repeated?

Three times


_____________ , especially active, forced flexibility is very effective during heating phase and the patient should be briefed on technique, before entering the whirlpool

Movement therapy


What are the indications of whirlpool Bath?

For any chronic musculoskeletal condition

the hot whirlpool effectively decreases chronic pain.

Also effective preparation for massage, SDIC and movement therapy.


True or False:

Hot tub – tub with hot water in it, no jets blowing combinations of H2O and air.

Whirlpool – action by combining water and forced air through jets under water.

Jacuzzi – built by “Jacuzzi Company”.



__________ - utilizes a combination of heating the body by complete immersion in hot (80°C) air, interrupted by cooling phases.

Dry Sauna


What to avoid in the sauna?

Avoid physical exertion


The following are procedure done in sauna. True or False:

1. The patient showers and dries the body

2. A hot footbath should be employed to pre-warm their feet and prevent dizziness

3. A cold collar prevents overheating of the cerebral circulation and a cold towel over the nose and mouth will prevent overheating of air, entering the respiratory tract. Utilized together these preventative measures maximize the duration to which their body can be heated



What happen when the client enters the sauna?

patient then enters the sauna and remains until they “bead a sweat”. 


What happen when the client exits the sauna?

patient should exit the sauna and cool down by relaxing (preferably recumbent) until sweating stops.


How many times should Heating/cooling process be repeated?

two more times


What are the indications of Dry sauna?

Good preparation for general massage or treatment of chronic injuries 

Reduces fatigue

Chronic arthritis

R.A., O.A., Gout


What are the contraindications of dry sauna?

Containdications: Any contraindications for heat

Any contraindications for cold (except when using natural cooling down)


__________ - is a pressurized stream of water directed at the body. As a general treatment, it is considered the most powerful means of stimulating the body with hydrotherapy.

Blitz Guss


Blitz Guss is also known as:

Scotch Douche


What are the three sets of Blitz Guss?

first: Hot/Warm

second: Neutral

third: Cool/Cold


On what are each sets of Blitz Guss starts?

right foot and the stream moves superiorly to the right buttock. Then descends inferiorly down the right thigh and leg


True or False:

Next, ascending from the left foot to the left buttock and across to the right buttock. From there the stream is directed superiorly to the right shoulder then descends to the right buttock again. Crossing laterally to the left buttock, then ascending to the left shoulder - then stop stream.



What are the indications of Blitz Guss?

Neurasthenia or lethargic patient

Sluggish metabolism


Withdrawal from tobacco, caffeine, alcohol

Pain from chronic musculoskeletal conditions


Which statement is true regarding Blitz Guss?

1. The large mechanical component of Blitz Guss makes colder temperatures easier to tolerate than cold affusion (Gate Theory).

2. Exception due to its mechanical influence the Blitz Guss should used on acute conditions and sensitive areas.

Except: 1


Cold Wet Sheet Wrap is also known as:

Universal Wet Wrap


What are the series of layers for Cold Wet Sheet Wrap ?

First Layer: cold wet sheet

Second Layer: plastic sheet

Third Layer: an insulating blanket


What are the procedure for cold wet sheet wrap ?

1. Prepare the table and wrap

2. Prepare the patient

3. Wring the wet sheet completely

4. Wrap the patient

5. insulate the patient’s neck

6. Cover the patient’s head


The following are therapists action during cold wet sheet wrap. Except:

The therapist must remain with the wrapped client to:

1. administer water, check vitals before and after cold wet sheet wrap

2. monitor progression through various stages of responses

3. this is vital since the therapist or patient may need to terminate treatment at any given time.

Except: 1

check vitals periodically (15 to 20 minute intervals)


What are the Four stages of Cold Wet Sheet Wrap ?

Stage One (The Cooling Stage)

Stage Two (The Neutral Stage)

Stage Three (Superheating Stage)

Stage Four (Sweating Stage)


What are the uses of the neutral stage?

Wrapping to this stage is used for insomnia, nervous indigestion or depression, as well as spastic constipation


The following describes one stage of Cold Wet Sheet Wrap.

The cold sheet rapidly extracts thermal energy from the body, this stimulates heat producing and conserving mechanisms Vasoconstriction of superficial blood vessels drives blood volume into the core Thermogenic tissues are stimulated and metabolic activity increases

Stage One (The Cooling Stage)


What is the duration of cooling stage?

This stage usually lasts 5 to 20 minutes


What is the duration of Neutral stage?

This stage usually lasts 15 minutes


What stage of cold wet sheet wrap?  wherein Heat produced by increased metabolic activity heats the cold wrap to body temperature. Typically, the patients feels very relaxed and commonly falls asleep

Stage Two (The Neutral Stage)


What is the duration of Super heating Stage?

This stage may last 30 to 60 minutes


What are the uses of the Superheating Stage?

Wrapping to this stage is used for colds (with no fever), constipation (irritable Bowel Syndrome), or preparation for cold treatments


What stage of cold wet sheet wrap? wherein Thermogenic inertia accelerates body. Wrap temperature above normal .The patient must be hydrated and monitored frequently.

Stage Three (Superheating Stage)


What is the duration of Sweating Stage?

The patient may remain in this stage for 1 to 2 hours


What are the Variations for Cold Wet Sheet Wrap ?

Partial Wraps (Short Body Wrap)

Dry wrap (Spanish Mantle)

Hot Wrap – often utilizes medicated additive(s)


Partial wraps includes the following. Except:

1. Arms out of wrap – is useful for claustrophobic patients

2. Shoulder pack (Scotch Pack)

3. Head pack

4. Throat or chest pack

5. Leg/foot pack

Except: 3