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Z MD1 Hip and leg anatomy > Thigh > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thigh Deck (65):

arrangement of flexors and extensors of the lower limb

extensors anterior flexors posterior


what is the definition of the gluteal region of the leg

extends between the iliac crest above to the gluteal fold below


what is the definition of the thigh of the leg

extends between the inguinal ligament and the knee anteriorly, and from the gluteal fold to the knee posteriorly


what is the importance of the gluteal lines of the ilium

delineate the attachments/origins of the individual gluteal muscles


what are the landmarks of the ischium

- ischial spine - divides the ishium into a greater sciatic notch above and a lesser notch below - (superiorly) - ischial tuberosity - (inferiorly) - ischial ramus - (projecting forwards) - meets the inferior pubic ramus to complete the obturator foramen


significant aspects of the pubis bone

- body and crest superiorly - inferior and superior pubic rami


what is the angle made between the femur and the hip

125 degrees


what structure demarcates the shaft and crest of the femur

the trochanteric line (anterior) and the trochanteric crest (posterior)


what is the linear aspera

posterior line on the femur that delineates the popliteal surface of the femur


what is the adductor tubercle

the distal and medial end of the linear aspera


general actions of muscles of the gluteal region

- extend, rotate and abduct the thigh at the hip joint - also minimise pelvic tilt during the swing phase of locomotion


where do the flexors of the hip joint arise from

the posterior abdominal wall


what are the major flexors of the hip joint

psoas and iliacus (iliopsoas)


what are the three components of the thigh

medial anterior posterior


major action of the muscles in the medial compartment of the thigh

act at the hip joint to produce adduction


major action of the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh

extend the knee predominantly but also hip flex


major action of the muscles in the posterior compartment of the thigh

flex the knee predominantly, but also span the hip joint


what is the fascia lata

the encircling layer of fascia surrounding the thigh


what are the borders of the fascia lata

extend from the pelvic girdle above and is continuous with the deep fascia of the leg below - invests the thigh like a stocking


function of the fascia lata

limits the outward bulging of the thigh muscles - helps with venous return from the legs


what is the iliotibial tract and what are its borders

the lateral aspect of the fascia lata that is thickened - extends from the iliac crest above to the proximal tibia below


function of the iliotibial tract

it acts like a tendon - is a shared aponeurotic tendon for insertion of gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata


function of gluteus maximus

extends at the hip joint and laterally rotates


function of tensor fascia lata

flexes and abducts the hip joint and medially rotates at the hip joint


origin of the gluteus maximus

the back of the sacrum and the adjacent part of the posterior surface of the gluteal surface of the ilium


insertion of gluteus maximum

- most inserts into iliotibial tract - some deep fibres insert into gluteal tuberosity


where is the gluteal tuberosity

on the posterior aspect of the femur heading down from the trochanteric crest


what are the main times that we use our gluteus maximus muscle

when we stand up from sitting, or when bending over, or when walking up stairs


what are the deeper muscles of the posterior aspect of the gluteal region of the thigh that lie beneath glueus maximus

- gluteus medius - gluteus minimus - piriformis - obturator internus - quadratus femoris


origin and insertion of gluteus medius and minimus

arise from the posterior surface of the ilium to the greater trochanter of the femur (anteriorly) - (move from posterior to anterior)


main function of gluteus medius and minimus

main abductors of the hip - also medially rotate (these are the muscles that stabilise the pelvis during walking to prevent wobbling)


origin and insertion of piriformis muscle

arises from the anterior surface of the sacrum and exits the pelvis through the sciatic notch and inserts in the gluteal region


distinguishing feature of obturator internus

has 2 small helper muscles either side (gemeli)


origin and insertion of quadratus femoris

extends from the ischial tuberosity on the medial side to the intertrochanteric crest


main muscles of the anterior superficial thigh compartment

- iliopsoas - pectineus - sartorius - vastus lateralis - rectus femoris - vastus medialis


what muscles make up the "quadriceps"

rectus femoris vastus lateralis vastus medialis vastus intermedius


origin and insertion of iliopsoas

origin on the posterior abdominal wall fibres converge and pass beneath the inguinal ligament and come down as a conjoint tendon into the lesser trocanter


main functions of iliopsoas

- flexes the trunk on the thigh - lifts the thigh at the hip - maintains lumbar lordosis


functions of pectineus

flexes the hip (like psoas) and adducts the hip (like medial compartment)


action of sartorius muscle

action of moving your leg to sit cross legged (flexion and abduction of the hip)


which muscles sit above sartorius and which sit below

above: iliopsoas and pectineus below: quadriceps


functions of quadriceps

extensor at the knee


insertion of quadriceps

- all 4 components insert into the tibial tuberosity via the quadriceps tendon and the patellar tendon - vastus medialis and lateralis also insert independently to the patella forming the medial and lateral patella retinaculum


functions of the medial and lateral patella retinaculum

reinforce the knee joint capsule and keep the patella aligned


origin of vastus intermedius

arises from and clothes most of the anterior surface of the femur


origin of sartorius

the ASIS


origin of rectus femorus

2 components: - anterior, inferior iliac spine - just above the acetabulum of the femur


function of rectus femoris

flexes the hip and extends the knee


what is special about rectus femoris

it is the only component of quadriceps that crosses both joints (hip and knee)


origin of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis

arise form the proximal femur


what are the muscles of the anterior, deep thigh

vastus intermedius


what are the adductor muscles of the hip

gracilis adductor longus, brevis and magnus


where are the adductor muscles

gracilis - forms the medial border of the adductor compartment adductor muscles are more lateral


attachments of the adductor muscles

extend from the inferior pubic ramus and the ischial ramus down to an insertion into the back of the femur (and down onto the supracondylar ridge onto the adductor tubercle for the adductor magnus)


which adductor muscle has the longest insertion

adductor magnus - insertion extends out right out onto the medial supracondylar ridge down to the adductor tubercle


action of the posterior compartment of the thigh

extensors of the hip and flexors of the knee


origin of the hamstring muscles

ischial tuberosity posteriorly and superiorly - superficial muscles (not SHOB) posterior shaft of the femur - deep muscle - SHOB


what are the hamstring muscles

- semitendinosus - medial - semimembranosus - medial - biceps femoris (long and short head) - lateral


biceps femoris long and short head - which is superficial, which is deep

long head - superficial short head - deep


which 3 hamstring muscles cross the hip to give hip extension

semimembranosus, semitendinosus, biceps femoris long head


origin of the short head of biceps femoris

arise from the posterior aspect of the shaft of the femur


insertion of biceps femoris

inserts onto the lateral side of the fibula


insertion of semimembranosis

top of the medial condyle of the tibia


what is the pes anserinus

common insertion of semitendinosis, gracilis (medial compartment) and sartorius (anterior compartment) - into the proximal tibia


which muscles contribute to stopping the waddling motion of the pelvis with walking

gluteus medius and minimus