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Z MD1 Hip and leg anatomy > vessels of lower limb > Flashcards

Flashcards in vessels of lower limb Deck (35):

what is the single stem artery that supplies the lower limb

external iliac artery


What are the 2 name changes of the external iliac artery along its route

femoral - when it passes beneath the inguinal ligament popliteal - when it goes through the adductor hiatus in adductor magnus


arteries always lie on the extensor or flexor side of a limb?



what branch does the femoral artery give off and what does it supply

gives off the profunda femoris artery (deep) - supplies the extensors of the thigh


explain the profunda femoris artery

runs down on adductor magnus sending little branches through the little holes in adductor magnus to the posterior muscles of the thigh


what three branches does the popliteal artery give off

genicular anastomoses anterior tibial posterior tibial


where is the genicular anastomoses

around the proximal shaft of the femur


with what other structure does the popliteal artery run with

the tibial nerve


where does the popliteal artery split into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries

at the inferior border of popliteus - they run down either side of the interosseous membrane


the posterior tibial artery divides into ...

the fibular artery lateral plantar artery medial plantar artery


where does the posterior tibial artery divide into its terminal branches

fibular artery - one inch below its origin under the flexor retinaculum lateral and medial plantar arteries - at the ankle


what is contained in the femoral sheath

the femoral artery and vein (not the nerve) and the femoral canal


what is the function of the femoral canal

a dead space in the femoral sheath so that the femoral vein can expand into it


what is the arrangement within the femoral sheath

lateral = artery middle = vein medial = dead space


what are the boundaries of the femoral canal

lateral = femoral vein medial = lacunar ligament behind = pectineous


what is within the neurovascular bundle at the back of the knee

from superficial to deep: tibial nerve, popliteal vein, popliteal artery


what are the neurovascular structures of the anterior compartment of the leg

deep fibular nerve paired anterior tibial arteries paired venae comitantes of tibial veins


what are the neurovascular structures of the posterior compartment of the leg

tibial nerve posterior tibial artery posterior tibial vein - paired venae comitantes


where abouts in the posterior compartment of the leg is the neurovascular bundle

within the deep muscles (held away from the interosseous membrane)


what artery gives an arterial branch to the lateral compartment of the leg and what is the branch called

the posterior tibial artery - gives off the fibular artery


describe the route of the anterior tibial artery

runs along the anterior surface of the IO membrane and heads for the dorsum of the foot (along with the deep fibular nerve) where it becomes the dorsalis pedis artery once beneath the extensor retinaculum


describe the route of the posterior tibial artery

travels with the deep muscles and heads for the sole of the foot with the tibial nerve


what are the structures from medial to lateral as they pass beneath the extensor retinaculum

tibial anterior EHL Anterior tibial artery deep fibular nerve EDL tendon of fibularis tertius (timothy has a nasty dirty toe)


where does the dorsalis pedis artery head for

the first web space between the 1st and 2nd toes


what are the structures from anterior to posterior passing beneath the flexor retinaculum

tib posterior FDL posterior tibial artery posterior tibial vein tibial nerve FHL


what are the symptoms/signs of compartment syndrome

painful pale pulseless paraesthetic paralysed (distal to it)


explain the deep system of veins of the lower limb

there are paired venae comitantes that join to form the popliteal vein --> external iliac vein


what two main superficial veins drain the lower limb

great saphenous vein - medial side short saphenous vein - lateral side


what other structure accompanies the great saphenous vein

the saphenous branch of the femoral nerve


what is the route of the great saphenous vein

from the dorsal venous arch --> anterior to the medial malleolus --> up the medial side of the leg --> goes a hands breadth behind the patella --> up the medial thigh --> through saphenous opening --> femoral vein


what is the route of the short saphenous vein

from lateral side of dorsal venous arch --> goes behind the lateral malleolus --> posterior leg --> popliteal fossa --> pierces deep fascia --> joins venae comitantes of anterior and posterior tibial veins --> popliteal veins


what causes varicose veins in the legs

the valves in the vessels that join the cutaneous veins and the deeper veins of the lower lim through the fascia lata are damaged/absent --> blood is pumped out of the deep veins and into the superficial veins = engorged


what is the site for a great saphenous cut down

anterior malleolus of the ankle


the fibular artery branches off which artery

posterior tibial artery


which artery contributes to the medial and lateral plantar arteries

posterior tibial