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Introduction to Psychology (PSY 101) > Thinking Critically with Psychological Science > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thinking Critically with Psychological Science Deck (36)
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1

Why do we need psychology in the first place?
a. Humans cannot rely on intuition and common sense.
b. Humans cannot rely on their eyes and common sense.
c. Humans cannot rely on their ears and eyes.
d. Humans cannot rely on their ears and intuition.

a.

2

What are the three flaws in common sense? Provide one example for each.

1. Hindsight bias: "I knew they would win the game, # 25 was going to be playing terrible due to what happened at the last game".
2. Overconfidence: "I take my Maltese on walks all the time, how hard could it be to walk a Great Dane?"
3. Perceiving patterns where there are none: " If you rearrange that company’s letters, it spells Illuminati".

3

How does scientific inquiry aid the psychological sciences?

It helps psychologists show people what is beyond illusions.

4

What are common characteristics of post-truth worlds?
a. Emphasis on feelings.
b. Emphasis on facts.
c. Emphasis on personal beliefs.
d. Emphasis on religion.

a. and c.

5

What are the four promoters of a post-truth world? Give one example of each.

1. Repetition: " Barack Obama was born in Nigeria".
2. Availability of powerful examples: Showing people breaking down in tears but not explaining the specific reason why.
3. Group identity and like-minded groups: "All my friends said this happened that way so it probably did.
4. False news: "JFK is a werewolf".

6

What are the steps of the scientific method?

1. Question.
2. Background research.
3. Hypothesis.
4. Experiment.
5. Analyze results.
6. Draw conclusions.
7. Report results.
8. Repeat and adjust the experiment if necessary.

7

What is a theory?
a. Repeating the essence of a research study to see if the base findings hold true in dif. participants and dif. scenarios.
b. A testable prediction.
c. Carefully worded statements of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.
d. A explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts events and behaviors.
e. Publicly communicating planned study designs, data collection methods, hypotheses, etc. . Prevents changing the experiment to best fit the outcome.

d.

8

What is a hypothesis?
a. Repeating the essence of a research study to see if the base findings hold true in dif. participants and dif. scenarios.
b. A testable prediction.
c. Carefully worded statements of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.
d. A explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts events and behaviors.
e. Publicly communicating planned study designs, data collection methods, hypotheses, etc. . Prevents changing the experiment to best fit the outcome.

b.

9

What is an operational definition?
a. Repeating the essence of a research study to see if the base findings hold true in dif. participants and dif. scenarios.
b. A testable prediction.
c. Carefully worded statements of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.
d. A explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts events and behaviors.
e. Publicly communicating planned study designs, data collection methods, hypotheses, etc. . Prevents changing the experiment to best fit the outcome.

c.

10

What is replication?
a. Repeating the essence of a research study to see if the base findings hold true in dif. participants and dif. scenarios.
b. A testable prediction.
c. Carefully worded statements of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.
d. A explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts events and behaviors.
e. Publicly communicating planned study designs, data collection methods, hypotheses, etc. . Prevents changing the experiment to best fit the outcome.

a.

11

What is the definition of descriptive research?

Research that involves systemic, objective observation.

12

What is the case study research method?
a. Recording behaviors in a natural environment, is based on description only, commonly used with children and animals.
b. Recording many less in-depth cases, massive amounts of info., can suffer from wording influence.
c. One or a few cases, fruitful insights, not used in generalized conclusions.

c.

13

What is the survey/interview research method?
a. Recording behaviors in a natural environment, is based on description only, commonly used with children and animals.
b. Recording many less in-depth cases, massive amounts of info., can suffer from wording influence.
c. One or a few cases, fruitful insights, not used in generalized conclusions.

b.

14

What is the naturalistic observation research method?
a. Recording behaviors in a natural environment, is based on description only, commonly used with children and animals.
b. Recording many less in-depth cases, massive amounts of info., can suffer from wording influence.
c. One or a few cases, fruitful insights, not used in generalized conclusions.

a.

15

Why is random sampling the best route to go for psychological studies?

It provides the most representative population. Allows for generalized statements to be made with greater ease.

16

What two questions accompany correlational studies?

1. How closely do the two factors vary together?
2. Can a change in one predict a change in the other?

17

1. What is a variable?
2. What are the three types of variables that an experiment may contain?

1. Anything that can vary and is feasible and ethical to measure.
a. Independent Variable (IV): The variable being manipulated.
b. Dependent Variable (DV): The variable being measured. Results from the IV.
c. Confounding Variable: Any other factors besides the IV that may produce an effect.

18

What is the range for positive correlation? Negative?

1. 0 to +1.00. Direct Relationship.
2. 0 to -1.00. Indirect Relationship.

19

What does the correlation coefficient do?

It provides a statistical measure of how closely correlated two things are.

20

True or False: Correlation is not Causation.

True.

21

When does illusory correlation occur?

When a relationship between two things is perceived, but, there is little to no actual correlation between them.

22

What does a double-blind study entail and how does it involve the placebo effect?

The researchers and the participants do not know who is receiving the treatment and who is receiving a placebo. If the researchers know, then they can subconsciously influence the treatment receivers to act as if the medication is working (placebo effect by proxy).

23

Most of psychology is based on ______ and _________ _________.

observation, common, sense.

24

Why can hindsight bias be misleading?

It can be misleading because it is always true, leading to overconfidence and seeing patterns where there are none (the other two flaws in common sense).

25

What are superforecatsers and what common sense flaw do they avoid?

1. They are individuals who study facts, figures, and contrasting opinions before making decisions.
2. Overconfidence.

26

Why do humans see patterns where there are none?

It is the brain's attempt to make sense of and organize the world as strictly as possible. Lowering stress and increasing contentment.

27

True or False: Humans can create truly random sequences.

False.

28

Critical thinking has three components: _______, ________, and ________.

Skepticism, Humility, Curiosity (In any order).

29

What is preregistration?
a. Repeating the essence of a research study to see if the base findings hold true in dif. participants and dif. scenarios.
b. A testable prediction.
c. Carefully worded statements of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study.
d. A explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts events and behaviors.
e. Publicly communicating planned study designs, data collection methods, hypotheses, etc. . Prevents changing the experiment to best fit the outcome.

e.

30

What does meta-analysis allow?

It allows the results of multiple smaller studies to be combined to form one general conclusion.

31

What two things does a useful theory do?

1. Organizes observations.
2. Implies predictions that anyone can use to check the theory and/or derive applications from it.

32

What kind of principles do behavioral studies test?
a. Realistic.
b. Hypothetical.
c. Theoretical.
d. Critical.

c.

33

True or False: Psychology is focused on revealing general behavior, not specific behavior.

True.

34

Why are animals used in psychological studies?

To study behavior, learning, thinking, and reasoning in an organism that is simpler than a human.

35

What two ethical questions arise with using animals?

1. What safeguards should protect the well-being of animals in research?
2. Is it ethical to place the well-being of humans above that of animals?

36

What 4 steps are followed when using humans for research?

1. Obtain informed consent from the potential participants.
2. Protect participants from greater-than-usual harm and discomfort.
3. Keep the participants' information confidential.
4. Fully debrief all participants.