Thinking, Language, and Intelligence Flashcards Preview

Psychology > Thinking, Language, and Intelligence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thinking, Language, and Intelligence Deck (30):
1

concept mental

how you organize something in your mind
grouping (schemas)

2

prototypes

images

3

algorithm

rule that guarantees the right solution to a problem
like a formula in math

4

heuristics

rule of thumb
can be used to make a judgement to solve a problem.
MENTAL SHORTCUT

5

representativeness heuristic

judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to the prototypes the person holds in their mind
ex: picking # in lottery: 123456789 vs. 542839652

6

availability heuristic

solve problems based on things that "pop into mind" based on recency, vividness, or distinctiveness

7

Howard Gardner

believed in 7 different types of intelligences.
1. linguistic
2. logical/mathematical
3. spacial (artists: how things should be arranged)
4. musical
5. body/kinesthetic (athletes)
6. intrapersonal (self)
7. interpersonal (social)
now 8. naturalist (outdoors)

8

Robert Sternberg

Triarchic Theory (most widely accepted today)
1. analytical (book smart)
2. creative
3. practical (hands-on skills, street-smart)

THINKING CAP

9

Goleman

EQ [emotional intelligence]
ability to analyze emotions, both yours and others, in decision making

EQ is a better predictor for future success than IQ

10

Higher performing brains

less active
neurological speed quicker

11

mental age

what should a person of a particular age know
can discover future performance based on mental age

12

Terman

created current IQ test called Stanford-Binet Test

13

problems with IQ

a 60 year old could have an IQ of 50
best used for children

14

flynn effect

intelligence has been increasing

15

standardized

questions have been piloted on similar populations scores fall on a normal distribution (bell curve)

16

reliable

test-retest
split halves methods

17

validity

content, predictive or construct
(no history questions on chemistry test)

18

aptitude

measure ability or potential (ACT or SAT)

19

achievement

tests that measure what you have learned (AP test)

20

language

spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

21

phonemes

smallest distinctive sound unit in language
english has 40
c/a/t 3 phonemes
ch/a/t 3 phonemes

22

morphemes

smallest unit that carries meaning
ex: pre, ed
[pre/view/ed] 4 morphemes

23

grammar

rules for language that enable us to communicate w/ and understand others

24

semantics

rules used to derive meaning from morphemes, words and sentences
(adding -ed and the end of word means it happened in the past)

25

syntax

rules for ordering words into sentences
adjectives before nouns

26

one word stage

around age 1
speak single word

27

two word stage

around age 2
speaking mostly 2 word sentences

28

telegraphic speech

speaking like a telegram
ex: give cookie, go outside

29

critical period

language develpment stats very early, so the longer a child goes without exposure to language, the harder it is to learn
7 years old

30

forms of communitcation

facial expression
body language
gestures