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What are the sections of the oral cavity?

The oral cavity proper.

The oral vestibule (the section between lips and teeth)


What are the boundaries of the oral cavity?

Buccal mucosa

Stretches from the lips back to the glossopalantine arch (the first arch and where the uvula hang from)

And from the palate to the floor of the mouth


Explain the passage of the parotid duct?

It pierces the buccinator muscle then opens into the oral cavity on the inner cheek opposite the maxillary 2nd molar.


Explain the passage of the submandibular duct?

Lies superior to the digastric muscle.


Explain the structure of the submandibular gland?

Each one is divided into superficial and deep lobes separated by the mylohyoid muscle.
The superficial is the lobe below the mylohyoid, on the external surface


Which embryological structures form the tongue?

The ant 2/3rds from from the 1st branchial arch
The post 3rd forms from the 3rd branchial arch


Explain the innervation of the tongue:

The ant. 2/3rds are innervated by the lingual nerve which contains fibres from the:
- Mandibular division of the Trigeminal nerve carrying general somatic afferent innervation from the tongue
- Chorda Tympani branch of the facial nerve providing special (taste) sensation.

Post. 1/3rd is supplied by the Glossopharyngeal nerve (Cr N IX)


Describe the papillae of the tongue?

Comes in 4 types:
Filiform - very numerous but no taste buds
Fungiform - scattered on tongue dorsal surface
Folliate - Fairly Rudimentary
Circumvallate - In a row just anterior to the sulcus terminalis


What is the sulcus terminalis?

A V shaped groove that demarcates the junction of oral and pharyngeal portions of the tongue base.


What are the muscles of mastication?

Lateral & Medial Pterygoid


What innervates the muscles of mastication and what do they do?

They act on the temporomandibular joint. Hinge it to open and close jaw and slide it to grind teeth from side to side.

Innervated by The mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V3 Cr N V)


Explain the muscle of the tongue

Split into intrinsic/extrinsic which alter the tongue shape & position respectively.

The extrinsic all end in -glossus

All the muscles of the tongue are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) except for the palatoglossal which is supplied by the pharyngeal plexus (CN 9/10)


What are the boundaries of the oropharynx?

Extends from the lower border of the soft palate to the upper border of the glottis.

Superiorly from the palatoglossal arch back to the posterior pharyngeal wall

Laterally it encloses the two arches (palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal) and the palatine tonsils in between.


What are the boundaries of the hypopharynx?

Extends from the sup border of the glottis to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage.

Its anterior wall is the posterior wall of the larynx


How do we divide up the hypopharynx?

Pyriform Fossa
Post Cricoid Area
Pharyngeal Wall


What arteries and nerves supply the hypopharynx?

Sup. Thyroid Art
Lingual Art
Asc. Pharyngeal Art

Pharyngeal plexus (CN IX/X)


What are the phases of swallowing?

- Voluntary propulsion of the bolus to the pharynx triggering the swallowing reflex

- Glottis covers the larynx
- Soft palate pulls up to cover nasal cavity
- Larynx pulls up
- Breathing is inhibited
- UOS relaxes and bolus passes into oesophagus

- UOS contracts and peristalsis moves bolus down


What nerves are involved in the swallowing reflex?

Afferent fibres in CN V/IX/X trigger the reflex

Efferent fibres from CN VII/X/XII lead to swallowing


What are the sections of the larynx?

- Supraglottic
- Glottis
- Subglottic


What are the cartilages of the larynx?

3 single cartilages:
- Cricoid
- Thyroid
- Epiglottis

3 Paired cartilages:
- Arytenoid
- Corniculate
- Cuneiform


Explain the muscles of the larynx?

The intrinsic muscles regulate movement of your vocal folds

The extrinsic muscles move the whole laryngeal complex (e.g. during swallowing) - Infra/supra hyoid muscles

Sensory and motor innervation from vagus nerve via reccurent and external laryngeal nerves


What are the parts of speech?

- Provides the air flow across the vocal chords

- Varies VC position, tension, vibration and length

- Balance of oral/nasal speech

- Action of lips/tongue/jaw produces speech

- Production of stress and emphasis on syllables


What is the pyriform Sinus?

A recess on either side of the laryngeal orifice
Its bounded by the aryepiglottic fold and the thyroid cartilage.