Nose/Sinus Flashcards Preview

Head and Neck > Nose/Sinus > Flashcards

Flashcards in Nose/Sinus Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

Functions of the Nose?

- Airway for respiration
- Warming & Humidifying air
- Filtering out large particles
- Immune function
- Olfaction
- Drains paranasal sinuses & nasolacrimal duct
- Drains/aerates middle ear via eustachian tube
- Voice Modification
- Pheromone Detection via Vomeronasal organ (of Jacobson) (in animals)

2

Who is most in need of the nose for respiration?

Neonates, they are obligate nasal breathers.

3

Describe the epithelium of the nasal cavity?

The sinonasal mucosa is the same as most of the resp. tract.
Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium with Goblet Cells

4

How does the nose filter out particles?

Coarse hairs (Vibrisae) in the nasal vestibule catch large particles.
Smaller ones are caught in mucous and cleared by the cilia

5

What is the eustachian tube?

Connects nasopharynx and middle ear, to aerate/equalise pressure in the middle ear.
Normally its closed but opens on positive pressure or swallowing

6

What is the nasolacrimal duct?

Carries excess tears from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity.
The reason your nose runs when you cry or you can taste eyedrops.
Also known as tear duct

7

What is the function of sinuses?

Debated but we think:
- Help with vocal resonance
- Decrease weight of skull bones
- Buffer for Trauma

8

What are the sections of the external nose? (Locate on self)

Glabella
Nasion
Dorsum
Supratip
Tip
Collumnella

9

What are the bony sections of the external nose?

The frontal process of the maxilla and the nasal bones.

10

What are the borders of the internal nose?

Midline - Nasal Septum
Laterally - Turbinates
Roof - Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone
Floor - Hard palate (maxilla and palatine bones)

11

What structures are associated with the internal nose?

The paranasal sinuses
Nasopharynx

12

What is a turbinate?

A bony scroll like projection from the internal lateral wall of the nose.
There are 3:
- Sup
- Middle
- Inf

Each is associated with its respective meatus which drains the sinuses

13

What are the clinical relevancies of the inner nose?

- Septal deviation
- Septal perforation
- Septal haematoma
- Nasal blockage due to inflamed turbinates

14

How does a septal perforation occur?

Pressure on the blood supply to the septum due to infection, trauma etc.
This leads to necrosis and break down of cartilage leading to perforation.

15

How would we treat inflamed turbinates?

Topical steroid treatment
Or Turbinate reduction surgery

16

List the sinuses in the face?

Frontal
2x Maxillary
Ant/Post Ethmoid
Sphenoid

17

What is drained through the inferior meatus?

Excess tears from the eye (lacrimal sac) along the nasolacrimal.

18

What is drained by the middle meatus?

- Frontal Sinuses
- Maxillarly Sinuses
- Anterior Ethmoid Sinus
- Middle Ethmoid Sinus

19

What is drained by the superior meatus?

- Posterior Ethmoid sinus

20

clinical relevance of the sinuses?

Rhinosinusitis
- Concurrent inflammation and infection of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses.
- Acutely its probably bacterial
- Chronic it may be allergic or non-allergic
- Non-allergic comes with or without polyps

21

What are the anatomical relations of the frontal/ethmoid sinuses?

Anterior Cranial Fossa

22

What are the anatomical relations of the maxillary sinus?

The orbits

23

What are the anatomical relations of the sphenoid sinus?

- Optic Nerve
- ICA
- Cavernous Sinus

24

What are the clinical relevance of the sinuse's anatomical relations?

Spread of infection E.g.:
- Meningitis
- Intracranial Abscess
- Orbital Sepsis

Risks from surgery E.g.:
- Orbital complications from sinus surgery

25

Explain the nasal blood supply?

Anterior of the nose:
ICA -> Opthalmic Art -> Ant/Post Ethmoid Art.

Posterior of the nose:
ECA -> Maxillary -> sphenopalatine

26

Whats the clinical relevance of the nasal blood supply?

Epistaxis:
(acute haemorrhage from the nose)
Usually occurs in little's area (anterior of nasal cavity)

Caused by:
- Trauma
- Anticoagulants
- Iatrogenic (surgery)
- Idiopathic
- Hypertension

27

Explain the nervous innervation of the nose?

Most of the nasal cavity is supplied by the pterygopalatine ganglion at the back of the cavity.
It in turn is mainly facial nerve with some maxillary (Trigeminal V2) involvement...

The olfactory bulb inserts fibres through the roof of the nasal cavity and inserts directly into the forebrain.

28

Clinical relevance of the nose nerves?

Olfactory dysfunction can occur due to rhinosinusitis, post-viral anosmia (loss of smell) or trauma.

29

What drains the sphenoid sinus?

The spheno-ethmoid recess