Throat Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Throat Anatomy and Physiology Deck (15)
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1

What is a Bifid Uvula and what is the clinical significance?

Split in the Uvula
Congenital

Associated with cleft palate
Need to check

2

Describe the oral cavity

2 parts:
-Oral vestibule (between lips and teeth)
-Oral cavity proper

Boundaries:
-lips to palatoglossal arch (anterior pillar)
-Palate to floor of mouth/tongue
-Buccal mucosa

3

Describe the course of the parotid duct

Pierces the buccinator muscle, then opening up into the oral cavity on the inner surface of the cheek, usually opposite the maxillary second molar

4

Describe the course of the submandibular duct

Lying superior to the digastric muscle, each submandibular gland is divided into superficial and deep lobes, which are separated by the mylohyoid muscle

5

Describe the lingual nerve

Supplies the general somatic afferent innervation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue.
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve.
It also carries nerve fibres that are not part of the trigeminal nerve, including the chorda tympani nerve of the facial nerve, which provides special sensation (taste) to the anterior 2/3 part of the tongue

6

What are functions of the oral cavity?

Taste
Mastication (teeth, tongue)
Speech (tongue, cheek, lips)
Digestion (salivary enzymes)
Swallowing (tongue, hard and soft palate

7

Describe the innervation of the tongue

2 parts:

Anterior 2/3rds
-From 1st branchial arch
-Sensation by lingual nerve (branch of CN V3)
-Taste by chorda tympani) (branch of CN VII)

Posterior 1/3rd
-From 3rd branchial arch
-Supplied by CN IX

Filliform papillae DO NOT contain taste buds

8

Describe the muscles and nerves involved in the movement of the tongue

Contains:
-Intrinsic muscles (alter shape)
-Extrinsic muscles (alter position)

Nerve supply:
-CN XII: hypoglossal nerve supply all except for palatoglossus (pharyngeal plexus- CN IX-X)

9

What are the functions of the tongue?

Taste
Mastication
Swallowing
Speech

10

What are the extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

Genioglossus, Styloglossus, Hyoglossus and Palatoglossus

11

Describe the muscles of mastication and their innervation

Four Muscles:
-Lateral pterygoid
-Medial ptergoid
-Temporalis
-Masseter

Nerve Supply:
-CN V3

Function:
-Acting on TMJ

12

What are the boundaries of the oropharynx?

Lower border of soft palate to upper margin of epiglottis

Palatoglossal arch to posterior pharyngeal wall

Lateral: faucial pillars and palatine tonsils

13

What is the epithelium and nerve supply of the oropharynx?

Stratifies, non-keratinised squamous

Pharyngeal plexus- CN IX and X

14

What is the blood and nerve supply of the hypopharynx?

Blood supply:
-Superior Thyroid artery,
-Lingual Artery
-Ascending Pharyngeal Artery

Nerve supply is from the pharyngeal plexus (CN IX and X)

15

Describe how speech is created

Respiration:
-Source of energy: air flow
-Inhalation and exhalation

Phonation:
-Flow of air through different Vc position, tension, vibration and length

Resonation:
-Oral/nasal speech balance
-Depend on nasopharynx, nasal cavity and oral cavity

Articulation:
-Production of speech, determined by action of lips, tongue and jaw

Prosody:
-Production of syllable stress and emphasis
-Provide effective speech tone