Tibiofibular and Ankle Joints Flashcards Preview

MD1 Metabolism > Tibiofibular and Ankle Joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tibiofibular and Ankle Joints Deck (98):
1

Where does the patellar tendon insert into the tibia?

Tibial tuberosity

2

What is Osgood-Schlatter disease?

Inflammation and irritation of the patellar tendon at the tibial tuberosity during adolescence

3

What is the general shape of the tibia?

Essentially triangular, until distal end

4

What are the three borders of the tibia?

Anterior border
Interosseus/lateral border
Medial border

5

Which border of the tibia is subcutaneous?

Medial border

6

What is the hook-like process at the end of the tibia?

Medial malleolus

7

What projects down from the end of the fibula?

Lateral malleolus

8

What forms the socket for the ankle joint?

Medial and lateral malleoli

9

What are the grooves on the malleolus and posterior tibia for?

Flexor tendons

10

Which leg bone is weight bearing?

Tibia

11

Which leg bone is solely for muscle attachment, and bears no weight?

Fibula

12

What connects the tibia and the fibula?

Interosseus membrane

13

What does the interosseus membrane do?

Hold tibia and fibula together
Transmit forces

14

How many muscles attach to the fibula?

9

15

What is the only muscle that inserts into the fibula, and where does it insert?

Biceps femoris at head of fibula

16

What is the course of the fibularis longus tendon?

Goes across sole of foot and attaches to base of first metatarsal

17

What does the fibularis longus tendon do?

Hold big toe down in locomotion

18

How far does fibularis brevis extend across the sole of the foot?

Only goes to base of fifth metatarsal

19

What can happen to the fifth metatarsal in inversion sprains?

Avulsion fracture - bone becomes detached because of traction force applied by tendon

20

Which part of the tibia is most commonly injured?

Junction of middle and inferior thirds

21

Why is the junction of the middle and inferior thirds of the tibia most susceptible to injury?

Narrowest here

22

Why is bony repair at the junction of the middle and inferior thirds of the tibia impeded?

Relative lack of vascularity because site of anastomosis of anterior tibial and fibularis arteries

23

What holds the tibia and fibula together?

2 joints
- Superior
- Inferior
Interosseus membrane

24

What are the three functions of the interosseus membrane?

Hold tibia and fibula together
Transmits force from fibula to tibia
Site of attachment for muscles

25

What type of joint is the superior tibiofibular joint?

Synovial

26

What is the range and type of movement at the superior tibiofibular joint?

Not much movement
Gliding movement associated with movement at ankle and knee joint

27

What reinforces the superior tibiofibular joint?

Anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligaments

28

What type of joint is the inferior tibiofibular joint?

Syndesmosis

29

What is a syndesmosis?

Joint held together by fibrous tissue

30

What does the syndesmosis of the inferior tibiofibular joint do?

Keep distal ends of two bones together in movements at ankle joint
Prevents separation during weight bearing movements

31

What reinforces the inferior tibiofibular joint?

Anterior and posterior interosseus ligaments

32

When can the inferior tibiofibular joint sustain injury?

Landing from height
Diastasis = separation of two bones and splitting of interosseus membrane
Quite rare generally

33

What are the tarsal bones?

Calcaneus
Talus
Navicular
Cuneiform
- Medial
- Middle
- Lateral
Cuboid

34

With which structures does each tarsal make contact?

Each tarsal makes contact with other adjacent to it

35

What joins adjacent tarsals?

Ligamentous bands

36

For which tendon does the calcaneus provide a significant lever for attachment?

Achilles' tendon

37

What is the Achilles' tendon?

Combined insertion of gastrocnemius and soleus

38

Which bone in the foot is the key bone in terms of articulation?

Talus

39

What does the Achilles' tendon do?

Plantar flexor of ankle joint

40

Where on the calcaneus does the Achilles' tendon attach?

Calcaneus tuberosity

41

What is the size of the first metatarsal relative to the others?

Much bigger and thicker

42

What is halux valgus?

Lateral displacement of first metatarsal

43

What is the size of the second metatarsal relative to the others?

Most slender

44

Why is the second metatarsal much more immobile than the others?

Base wedged in by medial and lateral cuneiforms

45

What can cause a march fracture in the second metatarsal?

Lots of running on hard surfaces
Prolonged marching like in the armed forces

46

How many phalanges are in the big toe?

2

47

How many phalanges are in toes two to five?

3

48

What creates the tunnel at the head of the first metatarsal on the undersurface?

Two sesamoid bones

49

What passes through the tunnel at the head of the first metatarsal on the undersurface?

Tendon
Neurovascular structures supplying distal aspect of tes

50

How is weight bearing transmitted through the bones of the foot?

Transmitted down onto calcaneus
Passes forward to talus and remaining bones

51

When is the calcaneus especially susceptible to fracture?

Landing from height

52

What often gets fractured along with the calcaneus when it's because of landing from a height, and why?

Lower vertebrae because force transmitted up entire lower limb

53

Why are parts of the talus relatively avascular?

No muscle attachments

54

Which joint is above the talus?

Ankle joint

55

Which joint is below the talus?

Subtalar joint

56

Which joint is in front of the talus?

Midtarsal joints

57

What are the midtarsal joints?

Talocalcaneonavicular joint
Calcaneocuboid joint

58

What is the space between the tibial and fibular malleolus called, to form the ankle joint?

Mortice

59

What fits into the mortice to form the ankle joint?

Body of talus

60

What deepens the mortice posteriorly?

Inferior transverse ligament

61

Which malleolus projects further distally?

Fibular

62

Why is the axis of rotation at the ankle joint not horizontal?

Because fibular malleolus extends further distally than tibial

63

Which movements are associated with plantar flexion?

Inversion
Slight adduction

64

What are the general movements at the ankle joint?

Plantar and dorsi-flexion

65

Why do ankle sprains have swelling in front of the line of the distal tibia?

Because capsule of joint projects further forwards to neck of talus

66

Where do the collateral ligaments of the ankle joint attach?

Tips of malleoli
Go down

67

Which of the collateral ligaments of the ankle joint is stronger?

Medial

68

Which bone does the medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint incorporate?

Calcaneus

69

How many bands make up the lateral collateral ligament of the ankle joint?

3
- Anterior talofibular
- Posterior talofibular
- Calcaneofibular

70

Which collateral ligament of the ankle joint is most often injured, and in what type of injury?

Lateral collateral ligament, particularly in sprains where foot goes into plantar flexion, inversion, and adduction

71

Which band of the lateral collateral ligament of the ankle joint is most commonly injured?

Anterior

72

What do the ligaments connecting the bones of the foot carry?

Blood vessels to individual bones

73

What separates the anterior and posterior surfaces of the calcaneus, underneath the subtalar joint?

Groove - sinus tarsi

74

What does the sinus tarsi house?

Talocalcaneal ligament

75

What does the talocalcaneal ligament do?

Very strong
Resists inversion and eversion

76

What does the subtalar joint do?

Keep talus and calcaneus in contact

77

What are the movements at the subtalar joint?

Most of
- Inversion = 20 degrees
- Eversion = 10 degrees

78

What is a clubbed foot?

Abnormal tarsal bone development
Causes inversion, where toes touch ground but heal doesn't

79

What bones articulate at the talocalcaneonavicular joint?

Talus
Calcaneus
Navicular

80

What bones articulate at the calcaneocuboid joint?

Calcaneus
Cuboid

81

How does the foot pronate?

Subtalar joint everts
Midtarsal joints abduct

82

How does the foot supinate?

Subtalar joint inverts
Midtarsal joints adduct

83

What is the pattern of pronation and supination in gait?

Supination in landing during gait
Pronation to bear weight after supinating
Re-supinates to take off into next stage of gait

84

What is the spring ligament's other name?

Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament

85

What type of joint is the metatarsophalangeal joint?

Condyloid

86

What are the movements at the metatarsophalangeal joint?

Flexion and extension
Adduction and abduction

87

What type of joint is the interphalangeal joint?

Hinge

88

What are the movements at the interphalangeal joint?

Flexion and extension

89

What are the ligamentous supports of the metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints?

Collateral ligaments

90

What are the plantar and dorsal plates around the metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints made of?

Fibrocartilage

91

Where is the plantar aponeurosis?

Immediately deep to skin
Between calcaneus and and metarsal heads

92

What does the plantar aponeurosis do?

Binds skin of foot for grip and protection
Maintains longitudinal arches of foot - especially when on balls of feet
Binds calcaneus and metatarsals together

93

What can happen to the calcaneus in plantar fasciitis and why?

Bony spur forms because of traction of inflamed plantar aponeurosis

94

Where are the arches of the foot?

Between 3 weight bearing points
- Calcaneal tuberosity
- Head of metatarsal 1
- Head of metarsal 5

95

What do the arches of the foot do?

Provide stable base in standing
Dynamic springs in locomotion

96

What are the arches of the foot?

2 longitudinal arches
- Medial
- Lateral
1 transverse arch - hemi-arch on each foot

97

What is the type of support of the arches during static activity?

Ligamentous

98

What is the type of support of the arches during dynamic activity?

Muscular