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Flashcards in Tissues Deck (85)
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1
Q

Merocrine (eccrine)

A

Type of secretion where cell uses vesicles, by exocytosis

2
Q

Holocrine

A

Type of secretion where cell disintegrates after the accumulation of a product

3
Q

Appocrine

A

secreting by exocytosis, but much larger vesicles than merocrine

4
Q

Serous gland type of secretion

A

Thin watery fluids

Sweat tears milk

5
Q

Mucous gland type of secretion

A

Secrete mucin + h2o = sticky mucus

Goblet mouth tongue

6
Q

Mixed type of secretion

A

Both serous and mucous

Salivary

7
Q

Cytogenic

A

Type of secretion where cells release whole cells

Testes and ovaries

8
Q

Endocrine type of gland

A

No contact with surface, no duct. Secrete into blood vessel. Hormones (Chem messengers)
Pituitary
Thyroid
Adrenal

9
Q

Combined exo and endo glands

A

Into duct and blood

Liver, kidney

10
Q

Cutaneous membrane

A

Consist of epidermis (simple squamous) and dermis (dense irregular connective tissue)

Relatively dry
Protects from dehydration and infections

11
Q

Synovial membrane

A

Lines some joints
Consist of connective tissue only

Span the gap btw bones
Secretes slippery synovial fluid

12
Q

What does mucous membrane consist of?

A
  1. epithelium
  2. Areolar conn tissue (lamina propria)
  3. A layer of smooth muscle (muscularis mucosae)
13
Q

Where mucous membrane is located?

A

Lines passages that open to the exterior environment (digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts)

14
Q

Where serous membranes?

A

Line the inside of the body cavities

Form a smooth OUTER surface of some viscera

15
Q

Mesothelium

A

Epithelial component of pleurae, pericardium and peritoneum

16
Q

Endothelium

A

Lines circulatory system

Derived from mesoderm

17
Q

Tunica interna

A

Membrane of blood vessels and endocardium of the heart

Consist of:

  1. Endothelium
  2. Thin Areolar layer
  3. Elastic sheet
18
Q

Hyperplasia

A

Tissue growth through cell multiplication

Embryonic and childhood

19
Q

Hypertrophy

A

The enlargement of peer costing cells

Skeletal muscle or adipose tissue

20
Q

Neoplasia

A

Development of a tumor composed of abnormal, nonfunctional tissue

21
Q

Differentiation

A

The development of more specialized form and function

Mesenchyme to muscle

22
Q

Metaplasia

A

A change from one type of mature tissue to another

Vagina, nasal cavity, smokers bronchi

23
Q

Developmental plasticity

A

Diversity of mature cell types to which stem cells can give rise

24
Q

Totipotency

A

Embryonic stem cell that have unlimited developmental plasticity

25
Q

Blastocyst stage

A

4 days after fertilization:
Outer cell mass - placenta and such

Inner cell mass - pluripotent

26
Q

Pluripotent

A

Embryonic stem cells that can develop into anything in embryo, but not into accessories of pregnancy

27
Q

Functions of adult stem cells

A

Replace old and dead
Contribute to growth
Repair damaged tissue

28
Q

Multipotent

A

Of adult stem cells: can differentiate into 2 or more diff cell lines, but not just any type of body cell

Bone marrow

29
Q

Unipotent

A

Of adult stem cells - most limited plasticity

Cells that give rise to sperm, egg, keratinocytes

30
Q

Regeneration

A

Replacement of dead cells by the same types of cells as before. Restores normal function to the organ

Skin, liver

31
Q

Fibrosis

A

Replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue, composed mainly of collagen produced by fibroblasts.

Helps to hold an organ together but does not restore normal function.

Muscle, lung, severe wound

32
Q

Atrophy

A

Shrinkage of a tissue through a loss in cell size or number

33
Q

Senile atrophy

A

Normal aging

34
Q

Disuse atrophy

A

Lack of use of an organ

35
Q

Necrosis

A

Premature pathological tissue death due to trauma, toxins, infections

36
Q

Infarction

A

Sudden death of tissue that occurs when its blood supply is cut off

37
Q

Gangrene

A

Any tissue necrosis resulting from an insufficient blood supply, usually involving infection

38
Q

Decubitus ulcer

A

Bed sore, pressure sore

Type of dry gangrene

39
Q

Gas gangrene

A

Bacteria of the genus Clostridium

Contamination with soil

40
Q

Blebbing

A

Bubbling of plasma membrane in cells dying by necrosis
Rupture
Inflammatory response
Macrophages

41
Q

Apoptosis

A

Programmed cell death
Shrink - phagocytized
Protein Fas of absence of growth factors

42
Q

Endonuclease

A

Chops up DNA

43
Q

Protease

A

Destroys cellular proteins

44
Q

Fibroblasts

A

Produce matrix (ground substance + fibers

45
Q

Macrophages

A

Arise from WBC

Large phagocytize cells engulf and destroy bacteria, sense antigens, activate the immune system

46
Q

Neutrophils

A

Type of leucocytes that attack bacteria

47
Q

Lymphocytes

A

React agains bacteria

48
Q

Plasma cells

A

Synthesis of antibodies

49
Q

Mast cells

A

Secrete : heparin (inhibits blood clotting)

Histamine (increase blood flow by dilating)

50
Q

Fibrocyte

A

A mature older fibroblast

51
Q

Collagenous fiber

A

“white”
Tough, flexible, resist stretching
25%

52
Q

Reticular fiber

A

Thin collagen fibers coated with glycoproteins

Spongelike network in spleen and lymph nodes)

53
Q

Elastic fiber

A

Thin, branches, coils, stretchy
“yellow”

Skin, arteries, lungs spring back

54
Q

Simple squamous functions

A

Allow rapid diffusion

Secretes lubricating serous fluid

55
Q

Simple squamous location

A
  • Inner lining (endothelium) of heart and blood vessels
  • serous membranes
  • surface mesothelium in pleura
  • pericardium, peritoneum, mesenteries
  • air sacs (alveoli) in lungs
56
Q

Simple cuboidal functions

A

Absorption
Secretion
Production of mucus
Movement of respiratory mucus

57
Q

Simple cuboidal location

A

Liver, thyroid, mammary, salivary and other glands
Most kidney tubules
Bronchioles

58
Q

Simple columnar ciliated

A

Propels mucus or reproductive cells

Small bronchi, uterine tubes
Some regions of uterus

59
Q

Simple columnar non-ciliated

A

Absorption, secretion of mucus and enzymes

Digestive tract, gallbladder, excretory duct of some glands

60
Q

Pseudostratified columnar ciliated

A

Trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract

Propels mucus (smokers)

61
Q

Pseudostratified columnar non-ciliated

A

Secretion

Male sperm carrying duct
Ducts of the large glands

62
Q

Stratified squamous keratinized

A

Protection

Basal cells can be cuboidal or columnar

Epidermis

63
Q

Stratified squamous nonkeratinized

A

Protection

Tongue, oral mucosa
Esophagus, vagina

64
Q

Stratified cuboidal

A

Secretion
Sweat gland ducts, egg producing vesicles of ovaries, sperm producing duct of testes
Mammary and salivary

65
Q

Stratified columnar

A

Rare, protection, secretion

Small amount in male urethra
Large ducts of some glands

66
Q

Transitional epithelium

A

Distended or empty

Stretches to allow filling of urinary tract

Part of kidney, ureter, urethra, bladder.
Umbilical cord

67
Q

areolar “proper” loose connective tissue

A

Wraps and cushions organs

surrounds blood vessels and nerves
part of lamina propria

68
Q

reticular loose connective tissue

A

mesh of reticular fibers and fibroblast

usually dark stained
suspension of lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, bone marrow.

69
Q

Elastic connective tissue (loose)

A

wavy collagen + branching elastic fibers

vocal cords, ligaments of penis
pumps in large in medium arteries

70
Q

Dense regular connective tissue

A

few blood vessels

tendons (muscle to bone) and ligaments (bone to bone)

71
Q

Dense irregular connective tissue

A

resistant to unpredictable stresses

Dermis of skin
capsules around viscera

72
Q

adipose tissue

A

white and brown fat (no ATP mitochondria)

subcutaneous fat beneath skin
protective cushion for some organs

73
Q

Hyaline cartilage

A

glassy
usually covered by perichondrium

ends of bones
fetal skeleton
boxlike enclosure of larynx
the growth zone of long bones in kids

74
Q

Elastic cartilage

A

always covered by perichondrium
mesh amid lacunae

external ear
epiglottis

75
Q

Fibrocartilage

A

parallel collagen fibers and rows of chondrocytes
never has a perichondrium

intervertebral discs
menisci

resists compression and absorbs shock

76
Q

Bone

A

osseous tissue
can be spongy and compact

the bone as a whole covered by tough fibrous periostenum

77
Q

bone matrix

A

concentric lamellae of osteon

78
Q

canaliculi

A

osteocytes contact each other

79
Q

Haversian canal

A

central or osteonic - blood vessels and nerves

80
Q

osteoblast

A

lacunae and osteocytes

81
Q

blood

A

fluid connective tissue, more ground substance (blood plasma) than cells (formed elements)

82
Q

erythrocytes

A

RBC most abundant, no nuclei

83
Q

platelets

A

blood cell fragments, involve in clotting, secreting growth factors that promote blood vessel growth and maintenance

84
Q

concentric lamellae

A

arrangment of lacunae in circles around the central canal

85
Q

interstitial lamellae

A

the remnants of circumferential lamellae that have been broken down