ToB 4 Internal surfaces of the body Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ToB 4 Internal surfaces of the body Deck (79)
1

Define mucosae:

A mucous membrane

2

Define serosae:

A serous membrane

3

What are the 3 main internal tubes which are lined with mucosae?

1) GI tract
2) Respiratory tract
3) Urinary tract

4

What does a normal mucosae consist of?

1) an epithelium lining the tube
2) a layer of connective tissue 'lamina propria'

5

In the GI tract, what does the mucosae consist of?

1) An epithelium lining the tube
2) A layer of connective tissue 'lamina propria'
3) A layer of smooth muscle 'muscularis mucosae'

6

Which of the mucosae and serosae line surfaces which are open to the exterior?

The mucosae

7

Describe a serous membrane:

Thin
2-part membrane
Line body cavities which do not open to the exterior
Secrete a lubricating serum creating a friction-free environment

8

What does a serosae consist of?

A simple squamous epithelium which secretes a watery lubricating fluid
A thin layer of connective tissue (attaches epithelium to the tissues)

9

What is the name given to the inner membrane wall of a serosae?

Visceral wall

10

What is a visceral wall?

It is the inner membrane of a serosae

11

What is the name given to the outer membrane wall of a serosae?

Parietal wall

12

What is a parietal wall?

The outer membrane of a serosae

13

Define mesentery:

A fold of the peritoneum which attaches the posterior wall of the abdomen to the GI tract. Arteries and veins are included within it to supply the GI tract.

14

Name the 3 parts of the small intestine, in order:

1) Duodenum
2) Jejunum
3) Ileum

15

Name the 4 layers of the gut wall:

1) Mucosa
2) Submucosa
3) Muscularis externae
4) Serosa

16

In what layer of the gut wall can you find 'Peyer's patches'?

Within the lamina propria, in the mucosa

17

What type of epithelium is usually found throughout the gut wall?

Simple columnar epithelia

18

What is the gut wall mucosa made up of?

1) Epithelium
2) Lamina propria
3) Muscularis mucosae

19

In which layer of the gut wall are glands found?

Submucosa

20

What type of tissue is the submucosa?

Connective tissue

21

In which layer of the gut wall can you find blood vessels?

Submucosa

22

In which layer of the gut wall are nerves contained?

Submucosa

23

What may the submucosa of the gut wall contain?

Glands
Arteries
Veins
Nerves

24

Describe the muscularis externae of the gut wall:

2 layers of muscle
encase the submucosa
inner circular layer
outer longitudinal layer
generates peristalsis

25

From which embryonic disk did the simple squamous epithelium of the serosa of the gut wall originate?

Mesoderm

26

What causes connective tissue to often be a loose layer which can change shape?

Cells within connective tissue are not usually contiguous, because they produce so much extracellular material

27

Define adventitia:

The outer connective tissue of an organ/vessel/structure which is not encased by a serous membrane.

28

What organs/vessels/structures have an adventitia?

Oesophagus
Ureter
Blood vessels
Renal pelvis
Ductus deferens
Seminal glands

29

How could you describe the shape of the lumen of the oesophagus?

Convoluted tube

30

What type of epithelium is present in the oesophagus?

Non-keratinised stratified squamous

31

Why is the oesophagus the only part of the GI tract with an adventitia?

The rest of the GI tract is encased in the serous membrane 'peritoneum'

32

Describe the muscularis externae of the stomach:

3 layers of muscle
oblique
circular
longitudinal

33

What are rugae?

Folds of gastric mucosa (form longitudinal ridges in an empty stomach)

34

What allows the rugae to change shape?

The submucosa is flexible due to the loose connective tissue

35

Describe plicae circulares:

Permanent crescent folds
of the villi to increase surface area
in the Jejunum of the small intestine

36

What type of epithelia is found in the jejunal mucosa?

Simple columnar epithelia

37

What type of epithelium is present in the large intestine?

Simple columnar epithelia

38

What are Peyer's patches?

Aggregations of lymphoid tissue

39

What 2 structures do the folds of Kerckring form (in the intestine)?

1) Villi
2) Crypts of Lieberkuhn

40

How is surface area increased in the intestines?

folds of Kerckring
villi and crypts of Lieberkuhn
microvilli

41

Where are the goblet cells located in the intestines?

Within the crypts of Lieberkuhn

42

Where are the surface absorptive cells located in the intestines?

On the villi

43

What do surface epithelial cells in the large intestine absorb?

Water
Electrolytes

44

What is meant by the 'conducting portion of the respiratory tract'?

From the nasal cavity to the bronchioles

45

What is meant by the 'respiratory portion of the respiratory tract'?

From the respiratory bronchioles to the alveoli

46

Name the different parts of the respiratory tract:

Nasal cavity
Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar ducts
Alveolar sacs
Alveoli

47

What type of epithelia is makes up a serosae?

Simple squamous epithelia

48

What shape is the cartilage surrounding the trachea?

C-shaped

49

What type of cartilage surrounds the trachea?

Hyaline cartilage

50

What may happen to cartilage as part of the ageing process?

Turns to bone

51

What is the name of the muscle which seperates the trachea from the oesophagus?

Trachealis muscle

52

Where is the trachealis muscle?

Between the trachea and the oesophagus

53

What type of membrane contains the trachealis muscle?

Fibroelastic membrane

54

What is the first respiratory structure after the trachea that is not encased by cartilage?

Bronchioles

55

What respiratory structures are encased by cartilage?

Trachea
Bronchi

56

What keeps the bronchioles open (prevents from collapsing)?

Surrounding alveoli

57

Where does the epithelial cell transition occur in the repiratory tract? What does it transition from and to?

In the bronchi, as they decrease in size
From ciliated pseudostratified columnar, to ciliated simple cuboidal

58

What is the main function of the simple squamous epithelial cells which make up the alveolar and capillary walls?

Efficient gas exchange

59

What type of white blood cells line the alveolar surface, and why?

Macrophages

60

What type of alveolar cells are referred to as 'type I'?

Squamous

61

What type of alveolar cells are referred to as 'type II'?

Cuboidal

62

Why is it important for there to be cuboidal cells in the alveolar epithelium?

To secrete surfactant, for lubrication

63

What type of epithelial cells are present in the alveolar wall?

Simple squamous
Simple cuboidal

64

How long is the gas-exchange diffusion pathway from the alveoli into the red blood cells, approximately?

200 nm

65

Why do macrophages line the alveolar surface?

To phagocytose microbes and dust

66

What happens to microbes and/or dust particles which get to the alveoli?

Phagocytosed by macrophages which line the alveolar surface

67

Alveoli are surrounded by a basketwork of what?

Capillaries and elastic fibres

68

What are the parts of the urinary tract?

Kidney
Ureter
Bladder
Urethra

69

Describe the shape of the ureter:

Convoluted tube

70

What type of epithelium lines the ureter?

Transitional epithelia

71

Why is it important that the bladder epithelium is impermeable?

Urine is toxic, so must prevent reabsorption/leaks

72

What ensures that the bladder epithelium is impermeable?

Thick transitional epithelium
Intracellular tight junctions

73

Describe the shape of the urethral lumen:

Convoluted stellate lumen

74

What makes up the mucosa of the urethral wall?

Transitional epithelium
Lamina propria

75

What makes up the muscularis layer of the urethral wall?

Inner longitudinal
Outer circular

76

What is the name of the outer membrane of the urethra?

Adventitia

77

Approximately how long is the male urethra?

20 cm

78

Approximately how long is the female urethra?

3-4 cm

79

What type of epithelium is present in the penile urethra?

Stratified columnar epithelium