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Flashcards in Tohoku Deck (19)
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1

Date of Event

11th March 2011

2

Richter

9.1

3

Mercalli

X

4

Epicentre Distance

70km East of Oshika Peninsula of Tohoku

5

Focus Depth

32km

6

Type of Plate boundary

Destructive Subduction

7

Plate Involved

Pacific Plate subducted by Eurasian Plate

8

Why so Destructive?

from shallow focus of only 32km --> allowed crustal material to be shoved up and over sea floor to move upwards by 10s of metres in seconds

9

Height of Wave

38m

10

How many fatalities?

approx.
16,000 deaths
5,000 missing
5,500 injured
130,000 displaced

11

Infrastructure damage

over
330,000 buildings
2 roads
56 bridges
26 railways
damaged or destroyed

12

Economic loss

$309bn

13

Predicted time back to normal

5 years

14

Most important impact

Japans nuclear power industry- 3 meltdowns at Fukishima
Caused contamination of sea, land and forced evacuation of locals
Brave team of emergency workers gave lives to prevent explosions

15

Further problems

heavy snow- blocked roads
Earthquake + Tsunami destroyed dam, cut off electrical connections and caused fires.

16

Social Impacts

20km radius around Fukishima Evacuated
4.4 million households left without electricity and 1.5 million without water

17

Short Term Responses

Displaced given resources
Search and Rescue
NGOs- Redcross $1bn

18

Hazard+Meterological Agencies

Set up for the prediction of earthquakes and tsunamis
-Detected Earthquake and issued televised warning just after very rapid P waves hit but before very damaging S waves hit. Gave people a chance to get out the buildings to safety.
-Predicted the tsunami 3 minutes after major earthquakes, giving people 20 minutes to get to safety.

19

Long Term

Re-building, re construction. Port facilities rebuilt, tsunami defence system reconsidered and extended.