Topic 1 - Network Fundamentals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 1 - Network Fundamentals Deck (34)
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OSI Model Layers

Application (Layer 7)
Presentation (Layer 6)
Session (Layer 5)
Transport (Layer 4)
Network (Layer 3)
Data Link (Layer 2
Physical (Layer 1)


TCP/IP model

Application Layer / Process
Transport Layer / Host-to-Host
Internet Layer
Link Layer/ Network Access Layer


OSI model in terms of a reference model. 

Layer 7 - HTTP, FTP
Layer 6 - Telnet, X.25
Layer 5 - L2TP, PPTP
Layer 4 - TCP, UDP
Layer 3 - RIP, OSPF
Layer 2 - ARP
Layer 1 - Ethernet


Explain TCP

- TCP is a full-duplex, connection-oriented, reliable and accurate protocol.
- If a TCP packet is not received, the hosts will communicate this and the sending host can send the packet again. Before transmitting, a sending host establishes a connection with the TCP host.
- This is done via a few handshake messages.

- 3 way hand shacks:
SYN (Host to Server) -----> SYN/ACK ( Server to Host ) ------> ACK ( Host to Server ) ---> Connection Established

example: Videos


Explain UDP

UDP requires less bandwidth than TCP because it doesn’t care about reliability. It doesn’t need to be connection-oriented and know whether a packet is received or not. The best example of this is Voice over IP. VoIP packets are real-time. They are played as they’re received. If one is not received, it doesn’t make sense to retransmit it because it would be out of order anyways when it is received. So it makes sense for VoIP application developers to use UDP for their transport layer protocol.

Features of UDP: Voip


TCP Port numbers

FTP - 20,21
Telnet - 23
SMTP - 25
DNS - 53
Http - 80
POP - 110
NNTP -119
HTTPS - 443


UDP Port numbers

DNS - 53
DHCP - 67, 68
SNMP - 161
NTP - 123



Firewalls - designed to prevent unauthorized access to your network. Layer 4 device.


Adaptive Security Appliances - ( ASA )

A security device that combines firewall, antivirus, intrusion prevention, and virtual private network (VPN) capabilities. It provides proactive threat defence that stops attacks before they spread through the network.


Autonomous AP

Configured individually, fully functional like Switch. AP can be overloaded if the neighbour goes down.


Controller based AP

Controlled by controller, fully controlled by WLC.
All the configurations are done on controller.
Controller tells if the neighbour goes down
Load balances user connection to each AP


Public cloud

Available for public. Either free or Pay per use model


Private Clouds

Application and services are offered in private for a specific organisation such as government. It has better security



Hybrid is generally made of two or more clouds.


Custom clouds

these are built to meet needs of specific industry like Health care or media. It an be private or Public.


Cloud computing vs Data Center?

Data Center are typically data storage facility run by IT department or leased site. It provided un un interrupted service.

Cloud: are off premises service and provided ON Demand basics and resources are available fast and with minimal management error.


Core Layer

Core layer: Provides optimal transport between sites and high-performance routing. Due the criticality of the core layer, the design principles of the core should provide an appropriate level of resilience that offers the ability to recover quickly and smoothly after any network failure event with the core block.
Multilayer Switches between buildings


Distribution layer

Provides policy-based connectivity and boundary control between the access and core layers.
Like Multilayer switch which can do routing etc


Access layer

Provides workgroup/user access to the network.
Like Switches to Host/PC


Three-Tier Model

This design model is typically used in large enterprise campus networks, which are constructed of multiple functional distribution layer blocks.


Two-Tier Model or Collapsed core

Two-Tier Model or Collapsed core ( Combination of Core and Distribution layer )
is more suitable for small to medium-size campus networks (ideally not more than three functional disruption blocks to be interconnected), where the core and distribution functions can be combined into one layer, also known as collapsed core-distribution architecture.


Leaf layer and Spain layer

The Leaf layer consists of access switches that connect to devices like servers, firewalls, load balancers, and edge routers.

The Spine layer (made up of switches that perform routing) is the backbone of the network, where every Leaf switch is interconnected with each and every Spine switch.


 Crossover cable

* Use when connecting like devices together

* Switch to Switch (auto detect on most switches will work with straight-through cables, but crossover is the correct choice)

* Switch to Hub ( hub is similar to a switch )

-Hub to Hub
-Router to Router
- Router to PC
- PC to PC
- Switch to Switch


Straight-through cable

- Use when connecting unlike devices together
- Also known as a patch cable
- For a straight-through, use 568B on both ends

- Switch to pc
- Switch to Router



- Very long distances, but seeing it more on the LAN now as well.

- Made up of Core, Cladding and Buffer.  Cladding is industry standard at 125m.

- As a point of reference, a human hair is 50 microns

- Single mode fiber: tighter cladding = smaller core, one mode of light propagates

- Multi-mode fiber: looser, larger core allows multiple light particles, less distance


Troubleshooting methodologies to resolve problems

1. Define problem
2. Gather Information
3. Analyze information
4. Elimination potential causes
5. Propose Hypothesis
6. Test Hypothesis
7 .Solve problem and document solution


Explain Unicast, Broadcast, Multicast IPv4

Unicast addresses are assigned to a single interface on a device.  They are used for one-to-one communication.

Broadcast addresses are assigned to all interfaces in a subnet.  Broadcast packets are sent from one host to everyone.

Multicast addresses are assigned to a group of devices on various subnets.  These are used for one-to-many communications. 


IPv6 Unicast Explain

An IPv6 unicast address is the same as an IPv4 unicast address; it is an IP that is assigned to an interface on a host. It can be the source of an IP packet or the destination for one. A packet sent to a unicast address goes to the one host with that address.


IPv6 Global unicast Explain

 A global unicast IPv6 address is the equivalent of a public, registered IP address. They are Internet routable, globally registered IPs that must be leased from an ISP.


IPv6 Unique local?

Equivalent to a private IPv4 address; not registered with an ISP and not Internet routable.
Unique Local Address is an IPv6 address in the block FC00::/7,